5 Rhythm The flow of music through time; the pattern of durations of notes and silences in music Beat - the pulse of musicMeter - the grouping of beatsTempo - the speed of the beatAccent - a pitch that is played more loudly, held longer or is higher in pitch than the nearby notesSyncopation - When an accented note comes where we would normally not expect it
6 Tempo Markings Molto-much Moto-Ritard means slow down exceedingly Troppo - too much (fast or slow)Poco – Literally “little by little”Accelerando - gradually fasterRitardando - gradually slowerA Tempo – Return to original tempo after RitardRubato – means “Robbed”. A lingering on some notes and hurrying of others; free from strict tempo.
7 Tempo Terms Grave, Very Slow Largo, Lento – Slow Larghetto, A little faster than LargoAdiago, Moderately SlowAndante, “Walking” TempoAndantino, A little faster than AndanteAllegretto, A little slower than AllegroAllegro, FastVivace, LivelyPresto, Very FastPrestissimo, Very Very FastModerato, Moderate(ly)Accel, Accelerando, Gradually becoming fasterRit., Ritardando, Gradually becoming slower
8 Music Notation Notating pitch Staff: the five lines and four spaces on which music is writtenNote: an oval which represents a specific pitchClef: placed at the beginning of the staff, the clef assigns pitch names to the lines and spaces
9 Music Notation Notating Rhythm Durations: the color of the note and the presence of stems or flags and beams and dots affect the duration of a noteRests: symbols for pauses with specific durations
10 Music Notation Notating meter Time signature: placed next to the clef, the top number of the time signature indicates the grouping of beats and the bottom number indicates what kind of note will receive one beat.
11 Melody A succession of pitches which add up to a recognizable whole Intervals: the distance between two pitchesSequence: the repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch
12 Harmony the vertical aspect of music Chord: a combination of three or more notes sounded simultaneouslyConsonance: harmony that is stable and restful to the earDissonance: tense and unstable harmony that demands onward motion to stable harmony (resolution or resolve) voice - Intonation
13 Key - Tonality the homing instinct of music Major scale: a succession of eight pitches arranged from low to high, based on the intervals of the white keys of a pianoMinor scale: a succession of eight pitches arranged from low to high, based on a specific pattern of whole and half steps which results in a dark quality of melody and harmony
14 Key-TonalityChromatic scale: a series of 12 pitches based on the black and white keys of the pianoModulation: the shifting from one key to another
15 Texture layers of sound Monophonic: a single unaccompanied melody linePolyphonic: two or more independent melody lines happening simultaneouslyHomophonic: melody plus accompaniment