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Music Pure art form: freedom from physical restrictions of space applied to other arts Responsibility of the listener: we have only the moment to capture.

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Presentation on theme: "Music Pure art form: freedom from physical restrictions of space applied to other arts Responsibility of the listener: we have only the moment to capture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Music Pure art form: freedom from physical restrictions of space applied to other arts Responsibility of the listener: we have only the moment to capture the music Active listening- the ability to hear perceptively Classical forms: specific style of music from the 17 th century, art music

2 Musical Elements Sound Rhythm Melody Harmony Tonality Texture Form

3 Sound: 4 basic properties Pitch: relative highness or lowness of a sound; measurable in sound waves (vibrations per second) Dynamics: degree of loudness or softness (size of the sound wave) Timbre or tone color: distinguishing physical qualities of the instrument that is sounding Duration: length of time a sound vibration is maintained without interruption

4 Rhythm: beat, meter, tempo Beat: individual pulses Meter: groupings of beats into units called measures / simple meters are triple or quadruple Syncopation: when accent is on the unaccented Tempo: the rate of speed of the composition Tempo markings: metronome marking, or accelerando and ritardando Rubato: when a performer takes liberties with the tempo

5 Tempo Terms adagio (slow) andante (moderate), allegro (fast) presto (very quick)

6 Melody: succession of sound with rhythmic & tonal organization Melody is linear and horizontal A melody may not be a tune, tune implies sing-ability Theme: central musical idea that may be restated and varied Motif: short melodic or rhythmic idea around which a composer may design a composition

7 Melodic Contour Conjunct- comprising notes close to each other Disjunct- contains intervals or leaps of a third or more Melodic contour- the shape of the melody line

8 Harmony: two or more tones sounding at the same time Harmony is a vertical arrangement, and moves through time Interval- two tones played simultaneously or the space between two different tones Chord- three or more tones sounding simultaneously

9 Piano Keyboard

10 Harmonic Progression: harmonic movement forward in time Consonance- intervals sounding sonorous and stable in their arrangement Dissonance- intervals sounding relatively tense and unstable Cadence- harmonic movement resolving (or not) to the tonic or root note of the scale Modulate- harmonic movement from one key or tonal center to another

11 Harmony: tonality Tonic- the root or first note of a scale or key Major tonality- seven different notes within an octave, comprised of a set pattern of whole and half steps Minor tonality- diatonic (standard) scale with half step between second and third degrees and any of several intervals above the fifth  Atonal- absence of tonal center and of harmonies derived from a diatonic scale

12 Texture Monophonic- single musical line without accompaniment. Voices or instruments playing at the same time with the same notes in unison. Gregorian chant is an example. Polyphonic- counterpoint; when two or more melodic lines of equal interest are played or sung simultaneously. Homophonic- chords accompany one main melody. Here the composer focuses attention of the melody by supporting it with subordinate sounds. Most popular music is from this genre.

13 More About Texture Texture implies spatial connotations Sonority- describes the relationship of tones played at the same time Open texture- large intervals between tones has a thinner, or more open, sonority Closed- chord with small intervals between its tones has a tight, thick, or close sonority

14 FORM- type or genre; the structure or shape of a musical piece Concerto- extended composition for solo instrument and orchestra Sonata- instrumental piece written in several movements for one to eight players Suite- set of dance inspired movements in the same key but differing in tempo, meter, and character Fugue- based on one theme that, throughout the piece, is imitated by different melodic lines

15 Symphony A symphony is an orchestral composition Usually in four movements, from twenty to forty- five minutes long The sequence usually begins with an active fast movement, then changes to a lyrical slow movement, moves to a dance-like movement, and closes with a bold fast movement The first movement of the sequence is most always in sonata form

16 Sonata Form Exposition- states two or more main themes Development- takes the original themes and develops them with fragmentations and modulations Recapitulation- returns to original material, restating the opening themes Coda- concluding part of the piece that integrates the previous themes or ideas

17 Composition & Notation Dynamic levels: pp (pianissimo) very soft to ff (fortissimo), to mp (mezzo, moderately soft or loud) very loud Crescendo- becoming louder; decrescendo- becoming softer Note Values (duration) & rests (silences): whole, half, quarter, eighth

18 Instrument Classifications Voice- soprano, contralto, tenor, baritone, bass Strings- violin, viola, cello, bass, harp Woodwinds- flute, piccolo, oboe, English horn, clarinet, bassoon Brasses- trumpet, horn, trombone, tuba Percussion- snare & bass drums, timpani, triangle, cymbal, xylophone Electronics- synthesizer

19 OPERA- integrates drama, poetry, visual art, & architecture with music Grand opera- serious & tragic, treats heroic subjects in highly stylized manner Opera buffa- comedic opera Operetta- light, humorous, popular themes Leitmotif- repeated theme that relates to a character or idea Aria- highly dramatic solo piece with orchestra Recitative- sung dialogue Libretto- text the opera music is set to

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