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Elements of Music Music History.

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Presentation on theme: "Elements of Music Music History."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements of Music Music History

2 Sound What is “sound”? Organization of sound
Vibration of an object through a medium that is transmitted to the brain by impulses from the eardrum Organization of sound Pitch Dynamics Tone Color Duration

3 Pitch relative highness or lowness of sound terms: tone interval
octave pitch range / range

4 Dynamics relative loudness and softness accent dynamic range:
pp – pianissimo – very soft p – piano – soft mp – mezzo piano – moderately soft mf – mezzo forte – moderately loud f – forte – loud ff – fortissimo – very loud gradual changes in dynamics crescendo / decrescendo

5 Tone Color / Timbre the quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument from another Identification of timbre is descriptive in nature bright mellow dark rich

6 Voices and Instruments
Performing Media Voices and Instruments

7 Voices Women Men soprano mezzo-soprano alto (or contralto) tenor
baritone bass

8 Musical Instruments Families Strings Woodwinds Brass Percussion
Keyboard Electronic

9 String Instruments Orchestral (with bows) Plucked Harp Violin Guitar
Viola Cello Double Bass / Contrabass / Bass Plucked Harp Guitar others

10 String Techniques Pizzicato Double stop (triple, quadruple) Vibrato
Mute Tremolo Harmonics

11 Woodwind Instruments Orchestral Other Reeds Piccolo Recorder Flute*
Oboe* English horn Clarinet* Bass clarinet Bassoon* Contrabassoon Other Recorder Saxophone Reeds Single-reed Double-reed

12 Brass Instruments Orchestral Others Ways to alter sound Trumpet
French horn / Horn Trombone Tuba Others Cornet Baritone horn Euphonium Ways to alter sound slides / valves mutes

13 Percussion Instruments
Definite Pitch timpani (kettledrums) glockenspiel xylophone celesta chimes Indefinite Pitch snare drum bass drum tambourine triangle cymbals gong (tam-tam)

14 Keyboard Instruments Piano Harpsichord Organ Accordion
pedals – una corda (soft), sostenuto, damper Harpsichord plectra Organ stops pedals / manuals Accordion

15 Electronic Instruments
Tape studio Synthesizer Analog synthesis FM synthesis Effects devices Sampling MIDI Computer computer music

16 Rhythm, Beat, Tempo, and Meter
What is the difference? Beat – the regular, recurrent pulse that divides music into equal units of time Tempo – the speed of the beat Meter – the organization of beats into measures Rhythm – the ordered flow of music through time the particular arrangement of note lengths in a piece of music

17 Meter time signatures duple meter, quadruple meter
triple meter, sextuple meter downbeat upbeat irregular meters accent syncopation

18 Tempo largo – very slow, broad grave – very slow, solemn adagio – slow
andante – moderately slow, “walking pace” moderato – moderate allegretto – moderately fast allegro – fast vivace – lively presto – very fast prestissimo – as fast as possible

19 Tempo (continued) Qualifying words Gradual changes Metronome markings
molto – much non troppo – not too much Gradual changes accelerando – gradually faster ritardando – gradually slower Metronome markings indicates number of beats per minute

20 Melody definition – contour legato / staccato phrases cadences climax
a series of single tones which add up to a recognizable whole contour steps / leaps legato / staccato phrases cadences incomplete complete climax sequence theme

21 Harmony definition – chord progression consonance dissonance
the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other chord progression consonance dissonance resolution triad important chords tonic dominant arpeggio

22 Key / Tonality tonic scale key signature modulation major minor
chromatic key signature modulation

23 Musical Texture monophonic polyphonic homophonic
single melodic line without accompaniment in unison or octaves polyphonic two or more melodic lines of relatively equal importance counterpoint imitation homophonic one main melody accompanied by chords

24 Musical Form Techniques that create musical form
repetition variation contrast Ternary (3-part) form: A (statement) B (departure) A (return) Binary (2-part) form: B (counterstatement)

25 Performance Practice performer’s role virtuoso conductor concertmaster
improvisation embellishment virtuoso conductor concertmaster

26 Musical Style definition – Stylistic periods of western art music –
a characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, timbre, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form Stylistic periods of western art music – Middle Ages ( ) Renaissance ( ) Baroque ( ) Classical ( ) Romantic ( ) Early 20th Century ( ) 1950-present

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