2 East-West split: The Great Schism 1054CausesPolitical/culturalDoctrinalWestern addition to the creed: Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father “and the Son” (Latin: filioque)EcclesiologicalPrimacy of bishops together v. growing authority of Bishop of Rome
3 Development of Papacy Up to 300s/400s: Five Patriarchs 400s onward Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, AlexandriaBishop of Rome is “first among equals”first in honor, as successor to Apostle Peter, who died at Romeworks in cooperation with other bishopsOther titles: Vicar of Peter (ca. 300), Vicar of Christ (ca. 1150)400s onwardWeakening of Roman political authority led to increasing church authorityPope Gelasius I: political power is subordinate to spiritual powerPost-1054Bishop of Rome only Patriarch in West
4 Background to Gregorian Reforms Need for reformLay investitureSimonyNepotismStand off between Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VIIPretty nasty on both sidesQuestion: who had authority over the other?Could Gregory excommunicate Henry?Could Henry depose Greg as pope?
6 Henry and Greg: what went wrong Henry appointed bishops in Germany and Italy1076: Henry convened German bishops to depose Pope GregoryPope Greg excommunicates Henryreleased king’s subjects from their oath of fealty: Greg absolves HenryHenry gets dirty againGreg excommunicates againHenry convenes HRE bishopsDepose Greg and elect another pope1084: Henry seizes RomeRomans elect HRE pope as their pope, Clement IIIClement crowned Henry as emperor in St. Peter’sFrench come into Rome to rescue Gregory, but he died in exile
7 Gregory VII (pope 1073-85) Spiritual authority above secular authority Concerns salvationHas sacramental power Secular authority is dirtyUses pride, plunder, treachery, and murder to gain power Dangerous, few find salvation Send thousands to death in war, out of desire for glory Good Christians more like kings than evil princes areSpiritual authority divinely givenBy Jesus to PeterAffirmed by popesGregory I (ca. 600) , Ambrose (ca. 380) excommunicated kings
8 Legacy Reforms corrected abuses But in time, abuses of these new reforms arosePapacy became a legalistic monarchy with MUCH more authorityDeveloped bureaucracy in Rome (the Curia)1302: actually claimed temporal authority, tooClerical celibacy created further problems by 1500sAddressed in Protestant and Catholic reformations of 1500sAlso at Vatican II ( )
9 For next time Spiritual writing Francis of Assisi What is his “conversion” story? What gestures does he use to signify change? What does he give up?How is his spirituality different from what we have seen?How does he interpret “imitation of Christ”?