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Gregorian Reforms 1073-1085.

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Presentation on theme: "Gregorian Reforms 1073-1085."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gregorian Reforms

2 East-West split: The Great Schism
1054 Causes Political/cultural Doctrinal Western addition to the creed: Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father “and the Son” (Latin: filioque) Ecclesiological Primacy of bishops together v. growing authority of Bishop of Rome

3 Development of Papacy Up to 300s/400s: Five Patriarchs 400s onward
Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria Bishop of Rome is “first among equals” first in honor, as successor to Apostle Peter, who died at Rome works in cooperation with other bishops Other titles: Vicar of Peter (ca. 300), Vicar of Christ (ca. 1150) 400s onward Weakening of Roman political authority led to increasing church authority Pope Gelasius I: political power is subordinate to spiritual power Post-1054 Bishop of Rome only Patriarch in West

4 Background to Gregorian Reforms
Need for reform Lay investiture Simony Nepotism Stand off between Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII Pretty nasty on both sides Question: who had authority over the other? Could Gregory excommunicate Henry? Could Henry depose Greg as pope?


6 Henry and Greg: what went wrong
Henry appointed bishops in Germany and Italy 1076: Henry convened German bishops to depose Pope Gregory Pope Greg excommunicates Henry released king’s subjects from their oath of fealty : Greg absolves Henry Henry gets dirty again Greg excommunicates again Henry convenes HRE bishops Depose Greg and elect another pope 1084: Henry seizes Rome Romans elect HRE pope as their pope, Clement III Clement crowned Henry as emperor in St. Peter’s French come into Rome to rescue Gregory, but he died in exile

7 Gregory VII (pope 1073-85) Spiritual authority above secular authority
Concerns salvation Has sacramental power [322] Secular authority is dirty Uses pride, plunder, treachery, and murder to gain power [321] Dangerous, few find salvation [322] Send thousands to death in war, out of desire for glory [323] Good Christians more like kings than evil princes are Spiritual authority divinely given By Jesus to Peter Affirmed by popes Gregory I (ca. 600) , Ambrose (ca. 380) excommunicated kings

8 Legacy Reforms corrected abuses
But in time, abuses of these new reforms arose Papacy became a legalistic monarchy with MUCH more authority Developed bureaucracy in Rome (the Curia) 1302: actually claimed temporal authority, too Clerical celibacy created further problems by 1500s Addressed in Protestant and Catholic reformations of 1500s Also at Vatican II ( )

9 For next time Spiritual writing Francis of Assisi
What is his “conversion” story? What gestures does he use to signify change? What does he give up? How is his spirituality different from what we have seen? How does he interpret “imitation of Christ”?

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