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The Catholic Church Global Studies 9 Mrs. Hart and Mrs. Bernier.

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1 The Catholic Church Global Studies 9 Mrs. Hart and Mrs. Bernier

2 The Holy Roman Empire In 936 A.D., a German king named Otto I sent troops to Italy to help the Pope put down a rebellion of nobles. Like Charlemagne, Otto I was crowned emperor. His successors later took the title “Holy Roman Emperor”.

3 Holy Roman Emperors The Holy Roman Emperors claimed authority over much of Europe. However under feudalism, the real rulers of the lands were the emperor’s vassals. Controlling the vassals was a real challenge for the emperors.

4 Conflict Between Popes and Emperors Conflicts developed between emperors and popes over the appointment of bishops in a certain realm. The emperors said they should, since the land was theirs. Popes said they should since bishops worked for the Church.

5 Pope Gregory VII v. Emperor Henry IV Because he believed that the pope was more powerful than all other leaders, Pope Gregory VII banned the practice of lay investiture, which angered Emperor Henry IV. After things heated up between them, the Pope excommunicated Henry. Henry, trying to save his throne, apologized. Forgiven by the Pope, Henry later took revenge on Gregory, forcing him into exile years later.

6 Concordat of Worms In 1122, after 50 years of struggle over the issue of lay investiture, both sides agreed to a treaty called the Concordat of Worms. They agreed that the Church had the power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority, but the emperor had the right to invest them with their fiefs.

7 The Wrath of Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III once said, “the Pope stands between God and man, lower than God but high than men, who judges all and is judged by no one.” Pope Innocent clashed with all the powerful rulers of his day. Angry with King John of England, he excommunicated him. When Philip II of France tried to annul his marriage, Innocent excommunicated him too. In 1209, when the Albigensians, a group of Christians from southern France, wanted to purify the Church, Innocent launched a crusade against them, slaughtering tens of thousands of people

8 The Crusades The Crusades were a series of holy wars that began in the 1050s and continued over a two hundred year period of time. They started when the Byzantine Empire, which included Palestine and the Holy Land, came under attack by the Seljuk Turks.

9 The Crusades The Byzantine emperor, unable to defend his empire against the Turks, asked the Pope, Urban II to send Christian knights to help. The Pope agreed, and by 1096, thousands of knights were on their way to protect the Holy Land.

10 Motives for the Crusades Religious zeal Knights hoped to win wealth and land. Crusaders wanted adventure and to escape problems at home. The Pope hoped to heal the schism, or split between the Catholic and Byzantine Churches. He also hoped that knights would fight the Muslim Turks instead of each other. Finally he hoped to increase his own power.

11 Defeat of the Christians By 1187, Jerusalem had been taken by the Muslim, although after negotiations, the Holy City was open to Christian pilgrims.

12 Effects of the Crusades Slaughter and misery led to religious hatred between Christians and Muslims. Trade increased in places like Venice Italy, as the Crusaders brought back new goods from the Middle and Far East. As trade increased, money reappeared. Feudal monarchs increased their power in order to support the Crusades. The split between the Catholic and Byzantine Churches did not end. Contacts with the Muslim world peaked the curiosity of explorers, giving Europe a wider world-view and bringing it out of the Dark Ages.

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