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How the Bishop of Rome became the Pope

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1 How the Bishop of Rome became the Pope
Rise of the Papacy How the Bishop of Rome became the Pope

2 It all begins with St. Peter
“You, Peter, are the Rock upon which I will build my Church” It all begins with St. Peter

3 Twelve Disciples Jesus had Twelve Disciples
Simon Peter, however, was the leader among the disciples After the Resurrection, the Disciples acknowledged that role by accepting him as the leader of the new Christian community Twelve Disciples

4 Peter in Rome Its not known when Peter went to Rome
He was not the founder of the Church there But he was martyred there during Nero’s persecution c. 68 Peter in Rome

5 From that point on the Bishop of Rome had a certain importance compared to other bishops
But he was not the most important nor did he have authority over other bishops

6 By the fourth century, there were five Patriarchs in the Christian Church:
Jerusalem Antioch Alexandria Rome Constantinople Each was equal to the others Patriarchs

7 With the fall of the Roman Empire in the West, the Bishops of Rome took over much of the authority once held by the Roman government Gradually, they became not just religious leaders, but political leaders in Italy

8 Pope Leo I The first pope to claim authority over the entire Church
Wrote “Leo’s Tome” which argued against the Monophysite heresy Persuaded Attila the Hun not to attack the city of Rome First pope to take the title “Pontifex Maximus” Pope Leo I

9 Used his own money to rebuild Rome and support the poor there
Ruled Rome as governor before and after becoming pope Sent missionaries to England and Germany Organized the Gregorian chants and wrote prayers for the Mass that are still used Pope Gregory I

10 Pope Leo I and Pope Gregory I are the only two popes in the history of the Catholic Church to be given the titles of “The Great”

11 Pepin was King of the Franks and the most powerful monarch in Europe in the mid 9th century
After defeating the Lombards who threatened Italy, he donated the land he conquered to the papacy This “donation” forms the basis of the Papal States The popes will rule the Papal States as a monarch from 756 until 1870 Donation of Pepin (756)


13 Coronation of Charlemagne
Charlemagne = “Charles the Great” Son of Pepin On Christmas Day, 800, Pope Leo III crowned him the first Holy Roman Emperor Coronation of Charlemagne


15 Importance: the pope is saying that he has the authority to decide who shall rule the nations of Europe

16 As the popes became more powerful, both religiously and politically, there was more competition to become pope By the late 9th century, several families in Rome sought to control the papacy because of the power and wealth that it could bring to their families By the mid 10th century the pope had become so corrupt that the Holy Roman Emperor deposed him and chose a new pope For the next 100 years the HRE’s will appoint the popes Problems and Decline

17 Pope Leo IX (appointed by HRE Henry III) begins reforms of the papacy
Pope Nicholas II in 1059 solves the problem of how popes should be selected by deciding that in the future the pope will be elected by the cardinals in a procedure called a conclave Reform

18 Innocent III ruled at the height of the power of the Medieval popes
He was able to control the monarchs of Europe, called the Fourth Lateran Council to rule on Church practices and the sacraments and approved the foundation of the Dominican and Franciscan religious orders Innocent III

19 By the 12th century, the pope:
Was the undisputed head of the Church in the West (the Roman Catholic Church) Was elected by the college of cardinals and was usually a cardinal himself Ruled as political ruler over the Papal States (central Italy) from his palace of the Lateran in Rome

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