MOTIVATION Processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Content Theories of Motivation.
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1 MOTIVATIONProcesses that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.Content Theories of MotivationContemporary Theories of Motivation
2 I) Hierarchy of Needs Theory Self-ActualizationEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiological
4 Hierarchy of NeedsAs each of these needs becomes satisfied, next need becomes dominantSatisfied need no longer motivatesHigher (satisfied internally) versus lower (satisfied externally) order needs
5 II) Theory X and Theory Y After viewing the way in which managers dealt with employeesUnder Theory X:People inherently dislike work, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.They must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goalsThey will avoid responsibilities & seek formal direction whenever possiblePlace security above all other factors
6 Under Theory Y People can view work as natural as rest or play They will exercise self-direction & self-control if they are committed to objectivesThey can learn to accept responsibilityAbility to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population
7 Theory X versus Theory Y Theory X: Lower needs dominate individualsTheory Y: Higher order needsTheory Y assumptions are more valid than Theory X.Participative decision-making, responsible & challenging jobs, good group relations
8 III) Two-Factor Theory One’s attitude toward work can determine success or failure => “What do people want from their jobs?”; Situations in which employees felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs.Opposite of “satisfaction” = “no satisfaction”Opposite of “dissatisfaction” = “no dissatisfaction”
9 Hygiene Factors Company policy & administration Supervision Relationship with supervisorWork conditionsSalaryRelationship with peersPersonal lifeRelationship with subordinatesStatusSecurity
10 Motivators Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility AdvancementGrowth
11 Contemporary Theories: I)McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for achievement: (nAch)Seek situations attaining personal responsibility for finding solutions to problemsReceive feedback on their performanceNot gamblers, dislike succeeding by chanceInterested in how well they do personallyPrefer tasks of intermediate difficultyPerform best when they estimate that they have a chance of success=>Run own business, manage self-contained unit
12 McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for power: (nPow)Desire to have impact, to be influential & to control othersPrefer to be placed into competitive & status-oriented situationsTo be more concerned with prestige
13 McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for affiliation: (nAff)Motive strive for friendshipPrefer cooperative situations rather than competitive onesDesire relationships that involve a high degree of mutual understanding
14 II) Cognitive Evaluation Theory Introduction of extrinsic rewards (pay etc.) for work effort that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation.Individual experiences a loss of control over his/her own behavior => previous intrinsic motivation decreases.Verbal rewards versus tangible rewards
15 III) Goal-Setting Theory Specificity of the goal acts as an internal stimulusIf factors (acceptance of goals) are constant => more difficult the goal, the higher level of performance (direct attention to the task, energize us, persistence, discover strategies)Self-generated feedback (monitoring own process): more powerfulGoal commitment, task characteristics & national culture influence goal-performance relationship.
16 IV) Management by Objectives Setting goals that are tangible, verifiable & measurableIndividual => Departmental => Divisional => Overall organizationalFour ingredients are common:Goal specificityParticipation in decision-makingExplicit time periodPerformance period
17 V)Self-Efficacy (Social Learning) Theory An individual’s belief that he/she is capable of performing a taskHow to develop self-efficacy?Enactive mastery: gaining experience with the taskVicarious modeling: seeing someone else doing the taskVerbal persuasion: someone convincing that you have the skills to have successBut intelligence & personality are absent!
18 VI) Equity TheoryComparing inputs (effort, experience, education, competence) and outcomes (raises, grading, recognition) to those of othersO/IA < O/IB => Inequity of under rewardedO/IA = O/IB => EquityO/IA > O/IB => Inequity of over rewardedO/IA: Person (you)O/IB : Relevant others
19 When perceived inequity Change inputs (don’t exert as much effort)Change outcomes (lower quality)Distort perceptions of self (I work harder than everyone else)Distort perceptions of othersChoose a different referentLeave the field
20 VII) Expectancy Theory Theory focuses on these relationships:Effort - performancePerformance - rewardRewards – personal goalsPeople will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe that:Effort will lead to a good performance appraisalA good appraisal will lead to rewardsRewards will satisfy the personal goals