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Chapter 6 Motivation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Motivation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Motivation

2 1.outline the basic motivation process
2.describe Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory 3.contrast theory X and theory Y 4.differentiate motivators from hygiene factors 5.list the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job 6.contrast reinforcement and goal-setting theories 7.explain equity theory 8.clarify the key relationships in expectancy theory

3 1 what is motivation? Unsatisfied Tension Drives Search need behavior
Satisfied Reduction need of tension Basic Motivation Process tension

4 2 Early theories of motivation
2.1 Hierarchy of needs theory higher-order self-actualization internally esteem social safety lower-order physiological externally Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory (马斯洛需求层次论)

5 Alderfer’s ERG theory Existence (safety + physiological) Relatedness (social) Growth (esteem + self-actualization)

6 Two distinct views of human beings:
2.2 theory X and theory Y Douglas McGregor Two distinct views of human beings: basically negative——theory X basically positive——theory Y

7 2.3 two-factor theory(双因素理论)
motivation-hygiene theory Question: What do people want from their job? He asked people to describe, in detail, situation in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs.

8 Hygiene factors affect Motivator factor affect
job dissatisfaction job satisfaction Quality of supervision Promotional opportunities Pay Opportunities for personal growth Company policies Recognition Physical working conditions Responsibility Relations with others Achievement Job security high job dissatisfaction job satisfaction high

9 Satisfaction Dissatisfaction
Satisfaction No Satisfaction Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction

10 The factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. Managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily motivation. Hygiene factors: when they’re adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; neither will they be satisfied. Motivation factors: satisfied, intrinsically rewarding

11 Criticisms:

12 3 contemporary theories of motivation
3.1 McClelland’s theory of needs Three major relevant motives or needs in the workplace: Need for achievement (nAch) Need for power (nPow) Need for affiliation (nAff)

13 First, individuals with a high nAch prefer job situation with personal responsibility, feedback, and an intermediate degree or risk. Second, a high nAch does not necessarily lead to being a good manager, especially in large organizations. Third, the best managers are high nPow and low nAff. Last, employees have been successfully trained to stimulate their achievement need.

14 3.2 Goal-Setting theory(目标设置理论)
Intentions (goals) can be a major source of work motivation. Specific goals —— increased performance Difficult goals —— higher performance? The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus.

15 If employee have the opportunity to participate in the setting of their own goals, will they try harder? A major advantage of advantage of participation may be in increasing acceptance of the goal itself as a desirable one to work toward.

16 3.3 Reinforcement theory(强化理论)
A behavioristic approach —— reinforcement conditions behavior What controls behavior are reinforce ——any consequences that ,when immediately following a response, increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated.

17 People will exert more effort on tasks that are reinforced than on tasks that are not。

18 3.4 Equity theory(公平理论) Center---- relative reward There is ample evidence for us to conclude that employees compare their own job inputs and outcomes with those of others and that inequities can influence the degree of effort that employee exert.

19 Equity theory says that employee weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome) and then compare their input:out come ratio with the input: outcome ratio of relevant others. If the ratios are unequal, inequity exist; that is, the employees tend to view themselves as underrewarded or overrewarded.

20 When inequities occur, employee will attempt to correct them.

21 Three referent categories:
other system self Other—— other individuals System—— pay policies and procedures administration Self—— input : outcome ratios

22 Five choices: Four propositions relating to inequitable pay:

23 3.5 Expectancy theory(期望理论)
Victor Vroom Expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will he followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.

24 Three variables: Attractiveness Performance / reward linkage
Effort/ performance linkage Individual effort Individual performance Organizational rewards Individual goals

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