2 1.outline the basic motivation process 2.describe Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory3.contrast theory X and theory Y4.differentiate motivators from hygiene factors5.list the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job6.contrast reinforcement and goal-setting theories7.explain equity theory8.clarify the key relationships in expectancy theory
3 1 what is motivation? Unsatisfied Tension Drives Search need behavior Satisfied Reductionneed of tensionBasic Motivation Processtension
4 2 Early theories of motivation 2.1 Hierarchy of needs theoryhigher-orderself-actualization internallyesteemsocialsafety lower-orderphysiological externallyMaslow’s hierarchy of need theory（马斯洛需求层次论）
6 Two distinct views of human beings: 2.2 theory X and theory YDouglas McGregorTwo distinct views of human beings:basically negative——theory Xbasically positive——theory Y
7 2.3 two-factor theory（双因素理论） motivation-hygiene theoryQuestion:What do people want from their job?He asked people to describe, in detail, situation in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs.
8 Hygiene factors affect Motivator factor affect job dissatisfaction job satisfactionQuality of supervision Promotional opportunitiesPay Opportunities for personalgrowthCompany policies RecognitionPhysical working conditions ResponsibilityRelations with others AchievementJob securityhigh job dissatisfaction job satisfaction high
9 Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Satisfaction No SatisfactionDissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction
10 The factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction.Managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily motivation.Hygiene factors: when they’re adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; neither will they be satisfied.Motivation factors: satisfied,intrinsically rewarding
12 3 contemporary theories of motivation 3.1 McClelland’s theory of needsThree major relevant motives or needs in the workplace:Need for achievement (nAch)Need for power (nPow)Need for affiliation (nAff)
13 First, individuals with a high nAch prefer job situation with personal responsibility, feedback, and an intermediate degree or risk.Second, a high nAch does not necessarily lead to being a good manager, especially in large organizations.Third, the best managers are high nPow and low nAff.Last, employees have been successfully trained to stimulate their achievement need.
14 3.2 Goal-Setting theory（目标设置理论） Intentions (goals) can be a major source of work motivation.Specific goals —— increased performanceDifficult goals —— higher performance?The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus.
15 If employee have the opportunity to participate in the setting of their own goals, will they try harder?A major advantage of advantage of participation may be in increasing acceptance of the goal itself as a desirable one to work toward.
16 3.3 Reinforcement theory（强化理论） A behavioristic approach ——reinforcement conditions behaviorWhat controls behavior are reinforce ——any consequences that ,when immediately following a response, increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
17 People will exert more effort on tasks that are reinforced than on tasks that are not。
18 3.4 Equity theory（公平理论）Center---- relative rewardThere is ample evidence for us to conclude that employees compare their own job inputs and outcomes with those of others and that inequities can influence the degree of effort that employee exert.
19 Equity theory says that employee weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome) and then compare their input：out come ratio with the input: outcome ratio of relevant others.If the ratios are unequal, inequity exist; that is, the employees tend to view themselves as underrewarded or overrewarded.
20 When inequities occur, employee will attempt to correct them.
21 Three referent categories: other system selfOther—— other individualsSystem—— pay policies and proceduresadministrationSelf—— input : outcome ratios
22 Five choices:Four propositions relating to inequitable pay：
23 3.5 Expectancy theory（期望理论） Victor VroomExpectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will he followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.