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Motivation: basic concepts. José Onofre Montesa Andrés Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Escuela Superior de Informática Aplicada 2003-2004
GPI-1 Subjects to study What is motivation? Theories of motivation Why people meats objectives.
GPI-2 What is motivation? –It’s not a personal trait, that is, some have it and others don’t. –“The willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.
GPI-3 The motivation Process Unsatisfied Need Tension Drives Search behavior Satisfied need Reduction of Tension
GPI-4 Early Theories of Motivation Maslow, hierarchy of needs theory, Theories X and Y Motivation-Hygiene They represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grow Manager regularly use this theories
GPI-5 Hierarchy of needs theory Maslow hypothesized this hierarchy Self actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological
GPI-6 Theory X (McGregor) Assumption: Employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. Manager must do: Supervision and control. Find easy tasks to people. Document de work process. Paid well and be equilibrated.. Expected results: Standard production.
GPI-7 Theory Y (McGregor) –Assumption: Employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self direction. –Manager must do: Inform employees. Listen plans, objections and suggestions. Allow self direction. –Expected results: Better moral. No change resistance.
GPI-8 Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Grow Company policy and admin. Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work Conditions Salary Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Security dissatisfaction Satisfaction Motivation-Hygiene theory (HERZBERG)
GPI-9 Contemporary theories ERG theory McCleland Theory of needs Cognitive evaluation Reinforcement theory Equity theory Expectancy theory
GPI-10 ERG More than one need may be operative at the same time. If the gratification of a higher level need is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower level need increases. Grow Relatedness Existence
GPI-11 McCleland Theory of needs Achievement need –The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Power need –The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Affiliation need –The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
GPI-12 Cognitive evaluation Allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically reward tends to decrease the overall level of motivation.
GPI-13 Goal setting theory ----”Just do your best”---- The theory that specific and difficult goals least to higher performance. Tell employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. Feedback and self generate feedback. Participative ser goals elicited superior performance.
GPI-14 Reinforcement theory Concept: –Behavior is a function of its consequences Situation behavior Consequences ResponseReinforcementRepeated Future Action Recurred
GPI-15 Equity theory E = S own E: experience, Knowledge, effort.. S: payment, advance, recognition.. E E S others
GPI-16 The four referent comparison that an employee can use: Self: employeeOthers Inside: current organization experience in other position coworkers Outside current organization Other jobs he has done in other places …
GPI-17 Equity theory Choices if inequity –Change their inputs –Change their outcomes (more Quantity les Quality) –Distort perception of self (I work a lot..) –Distort perception of others (he isn’t as good…) –Choice a different referent –Leave the field.
GPI-18 Expectancy theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength or an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to he individual.
GPI-19 Expectancy theory We focus on three relationships: –Effort-performance relationship. The probability perceived by the individual that effort lead to the performance. –Performance-reward relationship. Degree to attainment of a desired outcome. –Rewards-Personal goal relationship. … satisfy individual goal?
GPI-20 Ability and opportunity Ability Motivation Opportunity Performance
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