Published byHarold Norton Modified over 7 years ago
Chapter 10 Motivation Motivation and individual needs
Early theories of motivation Contemporary theories of motivation Contemporary issues in motivation
Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. Need is some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.
Exhibit 10-1 The Motivation Process
Unsatisfied need Tension Drives Search behavior Satisfied Reduction of tension Exhibit 10-1 The Motivation Process
Early Theories of Motivation
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory McGregor’s theory X and theory Y Herzberg’ motivation-hygiene theory
Exhibit10-2 Maslow’s Hierarcy of Needs
Self- actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Exhibit10-2 Maslow’s Hierarcy of Needs
Theory X Theory X offered by McGregor assumes that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. It is a negative view about people.
A manager who view employees from a Theory X perspective believes:
Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Because employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals. Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Most works place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.
Theory Y Theory Y assumes that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. It is a positive view about people.
A manager who view employees from a Theory Y perspective believes:
Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play Men and women will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility The ability to make good decisions widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of managers.
Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory
Motivation-hygiene Theory assumes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction.
Exhibit 10-4 Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory
Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Supervision Company policy Relationship with supervisor Working conditions Salary Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Security Motivators Hygiene factors Extremely Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Exhibit 10-4 Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory
Exhibit 10-5 contrasting views of satisfaction-dissatisfaction
Traditional view Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg’s View Motivators Satisfaction No satisfaction Hygiene factors No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction Exhibit 10-5 contrasting views of satisfaction-dissatisfaction
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
McClelland’s three-need theory Equity theory Job characteristics model(JCM) Expectancy theory Integrating theories of motivation
Three-needs theory recognizes that the need for achievement, power, and affiliation are major motives in work.
Need for achievement: The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Need for affiliation: The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
Exhibit 10-6 Equity Theory Relationship
Perceived ratio comparison Employee’s assessment Inequity (underrewarded) Equity Inequity(overrewarded) *Person A is the employee, and Person B is a relevant other or referent. Exhibit 10-6 Equity Theory Relationship
Equity Theory Propositions
If paid according to time, overrewarded employees will produce more than equitably paid employees. If paid according to quantity of production, overrewarded employees will produce fewer but higher-quality units than equitably paid employees.
If paid according to time, underrewarded employees will produce less or poorer-quality output.
If paid according to quantity of production, underrewarded employees will produce a large number of low-quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees.
JCM—five Core Job Dimensions
Skill variety: the degree to which the job requires a variety of activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talents Task identity: the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. Task significance: the degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people.
Motivating Potential Score(MPS)
Autonomy: the degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Feedback: the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. Motivating Potential Score(MPS) ╳ autonomy ╳ feedback
Exhibit 10-7 the Job Characteristics Model
Core job dimensions Critical Psychological states Personal and work outcomes High internal work motivation High-quality work performance High-satisfaction with the work Low absenteeism and turnover Skill variety Task identity Task significant Experienced Meaningfulness of the work Autonomy responsibility for outcomes of the work Feedback Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities Employee growth-need strength Exhibit 10-7 the Job Characteristics Model
Expectancy theory states that an individual tends to act in a certain way on the basis of the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
Exhibit 10-7 Simplified Expectancy Theory
Individual effort goals performance Organizational reward A B C A B C =Effort-performance linkage =Performance-reward linkage =Attractive Exhibit 10-7 Simplified Expectancy Theory
Exhibit10-8 Integrating Theories of Motivation
Individual effort Task complexity performance Organizational rewards goals Objective evaluation system Reinforcement Dominant needs Equity Comparison High nAch Ability Performance Evaluation criteria Goals direct behavior Exhibit10-8 Integrating Theories of Motivation
Contemporary Issues in Motivation
What is the key to motivating a diverse workforce? Should employees be paid for performance or time on the job? How can managers motivate minimum-wage employees? What’s different in motivating professional and technical employees? How can flexible work options influence motivation?(compressed workweek, flextime work, job sharing, telecommuting )
Practices: Explain the hierarchy of needs theory.
What are motivation factor and hygiene factor? And what do they include? How do the five core dimensions in the JCM affect on employee’s psychological sates and work comes? Explain the key relationships in expectancy theory.
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