Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Motivation Motivation and individual needs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10 Motivation Motivation and individual needs Early theories of motivationContemporary theories of motivationContemporary issues in motivation
2 Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.Need is some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.
3 Exhibit 10-1 The Motivation Process UnsatisfiedneedTensionDrivesSearchbehaviorSatisfiedReductionoftensionExhibit 10-1 The Motivation Process
4 Early Theories of Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theoryMcGregor’s theory X and theory YHerzberg’ motivation-hygiene theory
5 Exhibit10-2 Maslow’s Hierarcy of Needs Self-actualizationEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiologicalExhibit10-2 Maslow’s Hierarcy of Needs
6 Theory XTheory X offered by McGregor assumes that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. It is a negative view about people.
7 A manager who view employees from a Theory X perspective believes: Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.Because employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals.Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.Most works place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.
8 Theory YTheory Y assumes that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. It is a positive view about people.
9 A manager who view employees from a Theory Y perspective believes: Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or playMen and women will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectivesThe average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibilityThe ability to make good decisions widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of managers.
10 Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory Motivation-hygiene Theory assumes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction.
11 Exhibit 10-4 Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory AchievementRecognitionWork itselfResponsibilityAdvancementGrowthSupervisionCompany policyRelationship with supervisorWorking conditionsSalaryRelationship with peersPersonal lifeRelationship with subordinatesStatusSecurityMotivatorsHygiene factorsExtremelySatisfiedNeutralDissatisfiedExhibit 10-4 Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory
12 Exhibit 10-5 contrasting views of satisfaction-dissatisfaction Traditional viewSatisfactionDissatisfactionHerzberg’s ViewMotivatorsSatisfactionNo satisfactionHygiene factorsNo dissatisfactionDissatisfactionExhibit 10-5 contrasting views of satisfaction-dissatisfaction
13 Contemporary Theories of Motivation McClelland’s three-need theoryEquity theoryJob characteristics model(JCM)Expectancy theoryIntegrating theories of motivation
14 Three-needs theory recognizes that the need for achievement, power, and affiliation are major motives in work.
15 Need for achievement: The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.Need for power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.Need for affiliation: The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
16 Exhibit 10-6 Equity Theory Relationship Perceived ratio comparisonEmployee’s assessmentInequity (underrewarded)EquityInequity(overrewarded)*Person A is the employee, and Person B is a relevant other or referent.Exhibit 10-6 Equity Theory Relationship
17 Equity Theory Propositions If paid according to time, overrewarded employees will produce more than equitably paid employees.If paid according to quantity of production, overrewarded employees will produce fewer but higher-quality units than equitably paid employees.
18 If paid according to time, underrewarded employees will produce less or poorer-quality output. If paid according to quantity of production, underrewarded employees will produce a large number of low-quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees.
19 JCM—five Core Job Dimensions Skill variety: the degree to which the job requires a variety of activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talentsTask identity: the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.Task significance: the degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people.
20 Motivating Potential Score(MPS) Autonomy: the degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.Feedback: the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.Motivating Potential Score(MPS)╳ autonomy ╳ feedback
21 Exhibit 10-7 the Job Characteristics Model Core jobdimensionsCriticalPsychologicalstatesPersonaland workoutcomesHigh internalwork motivationHigh-qualitywork performanceHigh-satisfactionwith the workLow absenteeismand turnoverSkill varietyTask identityTask significantExperiencedMeaningfulness ofthe workAutonomyresponsibility foroutcomes of the workFeedbackKnowledge of theactual results of thework activitiesEmployee growth-needstrengthExhibit 10-7 the Job Characteristics Model
22 Expectancy theory states that an individual tends to act in a certain way on the basis of the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
23 Exhibit 10-7 Simplified Expectancy Theory IndividualeffortgoalsperformanceOrganizationalrewardABCABC=Effort-performance linkage=Performance-reward linkage=AttractiveExhibit 10-7 Simplified Expectancy Theory
24 Exhibit10-8 Integrating Theories of Motivation IndividualeffortTaskcomplexityperformanceOrganizationalrewardsgoalsObjectiveevaluationsystemReinforcementDominantneedsEquityComparisonHigh nAchAbilityPerformanceEvaluationcriteriaGoals direct behaviorExhibit10-8 Integrating Theories of Motivation
25 Contemporary Issues in Motivation What is the key to motivating a diverse workforce?Should employees be paid for performance or time on the job?How can managers motivate minimum-wage employees?What’s different in motivating professional and technical employees?How can flexible work options influence motivation?(compressed workweek, flextime work, job sharing, telecommuting )
26 Practices: Explain the hierarchy of needs theory. What are motivation factor and hygiene factor? And what do they include?How do the five core dimensions in the JCM affect on employee’s psychological sates and work comes?Explain the key relationships in expectancy theory.