1 Direction Intensity Persistence What Is Motivation?DirectionMotivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward the attainment of a goal. Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we discuss the topic of motivation. However, unless effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization, high intensity is no guarantee of favorable job-performance outcomes. Quality of effort, therefore, is just as important as intensity of effort. Finally, persistence (how long a person can maintain effort) is important. A motivated person stays with a task long enough to achieve his or her goal.IntensityPersistence
2 What Is Motivation? Motivation Key Elements The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goalKey ElementsIntensity: How hard a person triesDirection: Toward beneficial goalPersistence: How long a person tries
3 Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) There is a hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.Self-ActualizationThe drive to become what one is capable of becoming
4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Lower-Order NeedsNeeds that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needsHigher-Order NeedsNeeds that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needsSelfEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiologicalE X H I B I T 6–1
5 Assumptions of Maslow’s Hierarchy Movement Up the PyramidIndividuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied.Maslow ApplicationA homeless personwill not be motivated tomeditate!Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order.
6 Managers See Workers as… Theory XManagers See Workers as…Disliking WorkAvoiding ResponsibilityHaving Little AmbitionTheory YManagers See Workers as…Enjoying WorkAccepting ResponsibilitySelf-DirectedDouglas McGregor said that managers hold one of two sets of assumptions about human nature: either Theory X or Theory Y. Seeing people as irresponsible and lazy, managers who follow Theory X assume the following:1. Employees inherently dislike work and will try to avoid it.2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened to achieve goals.3. Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction, if possible.4. Most workers place security above all other work-related factors and will display little ambition.Since they see people as responsible and conscientious, managers who follow Theory Y assume the following:1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.2. When committed to their objectives, people will exercise self-direction and self-control3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.4. Many workers besides managers have innovative decision-making skills.No hard evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is universally true. It is more likely that the assumptions of Theory X or Theory Y may or may not be appropriate, depending on the situation at hand.
7 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Bottom Line: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites of the same thing!Hygiene FactorsSalaryWork ConditionsCompany PoliciesMotivatorsAchievementResponsibilityGrowthSeparate ConstructsHygiene Factors—Extrinsic and Related to DissatisfactionMotivation Factors—Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction
8 Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfactionFactors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfactionE X H I B I T 6–2
9 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 6–3
10 David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for AchievementThe drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeedNeed for AffiliationThe desire for friendly and close personal relationshipsBottom LineIndividuals have different levels of needs in each of these areas, and those levels will drive their behavior.Need for PowerThe need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
11 Matching High Achievers and Jobs E X H I B I T 6–4
12 Cognitive Evaluation Theory Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivationThe theory may be relevant only to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting.Hint: For this theory, think about how fun it is to read in the summer, but once reading is assigned to you for a grade, you don’t want to do it!
13 Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance.But, the relationship between goals and performance will depend on:Goal commitment“I want to do it & I can do it”Task characteristics (simple, well-learned)National culture
14 Enhances probability that goals will be achieved Self-EfficacyAn individual’s feeling that s/he can complete a task (e.g. “I know I can!”)Enhances probability that goals will be achievedNot to be confused with:Self-esteem, which is:Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves
15 Reinforcement TheoryArgues that behavior is a function of its consequencesAssumptions:Behavior is environmentally caused.Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences.Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.
16 Equity Theory Equity Theory Referent Comparisons: Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequitiesReferent Comparisons:Self-insideSelf-outsideOther-insideOther-outside
18 Equity Theory (cont’d) Choices for dealing with inequity:Change inputs (slack off)Change outcomes (increase output)Distort/change perceptions of selfDistort/change perceptions of othersChoose a different referent personLeave the field (quit the job)
19 Equity Theory (cont’d) Propositions relating to inequitable pay:Overrewarded hourly employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees.Overrewarded piece-work employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work.Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work.Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees.
20 Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders Expectancy TheoryEthical Values and Behaviors of LeadersBottom LineAll three links between the boxes must be intact or motivation will not occur. Thus,Individuals must feel that if they try, they can perform andIf they perform, they will be rewarded andWhen they are rewarded, the reward will be something they care about.
21 Chapter Check-up: Motivation Elizabeth’s boss starts out the day each morning saying, “Bet you wish you didn’t have to be here, huh?” Knowing this, which theory gives us insight as to why Elizabeth may not be motivated at work?
22 Chapter Check-up: Motivation Elizabeth’s boss my well be a Theory X manager, as she/he assumes employees don’t like work and/or want to be there.
23 Chapter Check-up: Motivation If you study really hard and only get a B on an exam, but your classmate barely studies at all and gets an A, what theory will help explain why you feel less motivated to go to class?