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Published byMarybeth Bryant Modified over 7 years ago
CHAPTER 8 MOTIVATING YOUR EMPLOYEES
1. Define motivation 2. Identify & define 5 personality characteristics relevant to understanding behavior of employees 3. Explain elements & focus of 3 early theories of motivation 4. Identify characteristics that stimulate the achievement drive in high achievers 5. Identify 3 relationships in expectancy theory that determine an individual’s level of effort 6. List actions a supervisor can take to maximize employee motivation 7. Describe how supervisors can design individual jobs to maximize employee performance 8. Explain the effect of workforce diversity on motivating employees
Willingness to do something Conditioned upon the action’s ability to satisfy some need Need Physiological or psychological deficiency makes certain outcomes seem attractive
Personality types Locus of control Source of control over individual’s behavior Internal – we control our own behaviors External – our lives are controlled by external forces Machiavellianism Manipulative behaviors Ends justify means Self-esteem How much you like or dislike yourself Low-SEs High-SEs
Personality types (cont.) Self-monitoring Adjust behavior to external situational factors High – adapt easily, capable of presenting striking contradictions between public and private selves Low – display true feelings and beliefs in almost every situation Risk propensity Willingness to take risk Rapid decision making with less information
Understand why people act the way they do Understand how people are motivated Match personality types with compatible jobs
Hierarchy of needs (Maslow, 1954) Hierarch of needs Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self-actualization Each needs satisfy Next level Substantially satisfied needs no longer motivates Not supported by studies
Theory X – Theory Y (Douglas McGregor, 1960) Theory X assumptions Employees dislike work avoid it Must be coerced, controlled, or threatened Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction Workers place security above all other factors little ambition Theory Y assumptions Employees view work as natural Exercise self-direction and self-control once committed to objectives The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility Ability to make good decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population
Theory X – Theory Y (cont.) McGregor: Theory Y more valid Participation in decision making Responsible and challenging jobs Good group relations No evidence to confirm validity Theory X or Theory Y assumptions maybe appropriate in different situations
Motivation – Hygiene theory (Herzberf, 1959) Motivators differentiate satisfaction and no satisfaction Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Growth Hygiene factors differentiate dissatisfaction and no dissatisfaction Working conditions Salary Policy
Need for achievement (McClelland, 1961) Drive to succeed Intrinsic motivation to do better High achiever Preference Personal responsibility Feedback Medium degree of risk Entrepreneurial
Equity Theory (Adams, 1965) Employees compare input-outcome ratios If equal fair Unequal attempt to correct Expectancy Theory Employees analyze relationships between effort-performance; performance-reward; and reward-personal goals Level of effort depends on expectations that these relationships can be achieved
Recognize individual differences Match people to jobs Set challenging goals Encourage participation Individualize rewards Link rewards to performance Check for equity Don’t ignore the money
Job design Skill variety Task variety Task significance Autonomy Feedback Job enrichment Increase control over the planning, execution and evaluation of people’s work
Motivating a diverse workforce Flexibility Cultural differences Should employees be paid for performance or time on the job? Pay for performance Competency based compensation
Motivating minimum-wage employees Rewards Job design Motivating professional and technical employees Job challenge Recognition Alternative career paths
Improve work-life balance Flextime Job sharing Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)
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