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Chapter 10, Section 3 Indian Removal.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10, Section 3 Indian Removal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10, Section 3 Indian Removal

2 Indian Removal Act Indian Removal Act
Passed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830 Authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River to lands in the West Displacement of thousands of Native Americans from the ancestral homelands they had occupied for thousands of years before European settlement Opened land for settlement of white farmers

3 Indian Removal Act Indian Territory
Established by Congress Present day Oklahoma Supporters of the plan (like John C. Calhoun) argued that the removal of Native Americans would protect them from conflicts with American settlers Bureau of Indian Affairs Created to manage Native American removal

4 Indian Removal Act Choctaw were first Native Americans sent to Indian Territory Mississippi state legislature abolished the Choctaw government Choctaw leaders were forced to sign the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek Gave more than 7.5 million acres of land to Mississippi Choctaw moved to Indian Territory during a disastrous winter trip Federal government did not provide Choctaw with enough supplies and food as they had promised Forced to move on foot, 25% of the Choctaw died of exposure, disease, and starvation

5 Indian Removal Act Choctaw’s plight motivated other tribes to resist removal Creek resistance led to their capture by federal troop Forced to Indian Territory in chains Chickasaw Tried to negotiate better supplies for their trip Many Chickasaw still perished on the journey


7 Cherokee Resistance Cherokee held the belief that they could prevent conflicts and avoid removal by using moderate assimilation Invited missionaries to set up schools where Cherokee children learned to read and write in English Developed their own government modeled after the US Constitution Created by Sequoya, used 86 characters to create their own writing system Began publishing a newspaper in both English and Cherokee

8 Cherokee Resistance Assimilation attempts did not protect them from removal After gold was discovered on their land in Georgia, their treaty rights were ignored Georgia leaders prepared for their removal Refusal to move led to attacks from the Georgia militia Cherokee sued the state Worcester v Georgia Supreme Court Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee Nation was a distinct community in which the laws of Georgia had no force

9 Cherokee Resistance Georgia ignored the Supreme Court ruling and President Andrew Jackson took no action to enforce it “John Marshall made his decision; now let him enforce it” By not enforcing the court’s decision, President Andrew Jackson violated his oath of office to uphold the laws of the land

10 Cherokee Resistance Spring 1838 Trail of Tears Cherokee Removal
Some escaped to North Carolina After removal, the state of Georgia took their businesses, farms, and property Trail of Tears Forced Cherokee march to Indian Territory 18,000 (25%) of the Cherokees perished from disease, hunger, and exposure

11 Other Native Americans Resist
Other Native American Nations decided to fight against removal Black Hawk Leader of Fox and Sauk Native Americans Led his people in a struggle to protect their lands in Illinois Due to lack of food, they were forced to leave by 1850 Seminole Osceola Seminole leader who called upon his people to resist with force Second Seminole War Osceola captured and died in prison Seminoles eventually forced to move or were killed

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