Presentation on theme: "Topic 15 Indian Removal. Indian Removal Act Native Americans had long lived in settlements stretching from Georgia to Mississippi. – President Jackson."— Presentation transcript:
Indian Removal Act Native Americans had long lived in settlements stretching from Georgia to Mississippi. – President Jackson and other leaders wanted to open land for American settlers. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830. – Authorized removal of Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River to lands in the West Congress then established Indian Territory This was U.S. land in what is now Oklahoma – THINK – is land in Oklahoma anything like Georgia? Alabama? Mississippi? Florida? Congress approved the creation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to manage removal.
Native American Removal Choctaw – First sent to Indian Territory – 7.5 million acres of their land taken away in Mississippi – ¼ died on the way to Indian Territory Creek – Resisted at first, but were captured and forced to march to Indian Territory – However, some ran away… Chickasaw – Negotiated treaty for better supplies, but many still died
Cherokee Nation Cherokees adopted white culture, had their own government, and a writing system developed by Sequoya. Georgia took their land and the Cherokees filed a lawsuit Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokees in Worcester v Georgia, but President Jackson sided with Georgia and took no action to enforce the ruling. – This violated his presidential oath to uphold the laws of the land. In 1838, U.S. troops forced Cherokees on an 800-mile march to Indian territory – Over ¼ of the 18,000 Cherokees died.
Other Native Americans resist Chief Black Hawk of the Fox and Sauk tribe fought back rather than leave Illinois – He eventually is forced to leave, after running out of food and supplies Several Native American tribes had members run away south instead of moving west. – Included Upper and Lower Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Red Sticks, Yamasees, Yuchis, and others – Settled further south in Florida, joining forces with runaway slaves to form Seminoles. – The word Seminole originated in 1763 from Creek (Muskogean) "simano:li", earlier "simalo:ni" meaning "wild, untamed, runaway
Second Seminole War Eventually, U.S. troops enter Florida to remove Seminoles in 1835. – Violated the Treaty of Moultrie Creek signed in 1823, after Seminoles had already agreed to move from the panhandle to central Florida. – Fighting was intense, and U.S. troops were devastated due to their inability to maneuver and find Seminoles in heavy forests and swamps. Several leaders were captured under false white flags, including Osceola – After hundreds die, around 4,000 members are removed to Oklahoma and form the Seminole Nation. – Some continue to resist and retreat to south Florida in and around the Everglades. This is the Seminole Tribe of Florida. They continue to claim that they are the only Native American tribe never to sign a treaty or be conquered by the U.S.