Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 section 3 Jackson’s Indian Policy. Jackson’s Right to Land Jackson’s goal was shaped by his earlier experiences fighting the Seminoles in Florida."— Presentation transcript:
Jackson’s Right to Land Jackson’s goal was shaped by his earlier experiences fighting the Seminoles in Florida. The Creeks and the Seminoles called Jackson, “Big Knife”. Jackson believed settlers had rights to the land east of the Mississippi River. Jackson believed he had the right to take the land from the Indians in the Southeast.( Five Southeastern tribes: Cherokees, Creeks, Chickasaw, Choctaws, and Seminoles)
Jackson’s Beliefs Jackson also believed that removing the Indians from their lands was the best way to protect them. The Supreme Court ruled that Georgia’s Cherokee’s could keep their lands, but Jackson ignored the decision. President Jackson believed that his oath as President bound him to obey the Constitution as he, not the court interpreted it.
Indian Removal Act 1830 In 1830, at President Jackson’s urging, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. It allowed the President to make treaties with Eastern tribes to exchange their lands for land west of the Mississippi. Indian removal is a tragic chapter in American history. Most tribes accepted their fate with little or no resistance. They signed treaties, packed belongings, and moved to barren lands set aside across the Mississippi. A few tribes though, strongly resisted removal.
Indian Resistance A few tribes strongly resisted the removal. Led by Blackhawk, the Saux and Fox Indians of the Wisconsin Territory challenged the removal treaty. The result was the Black Hawk War, although it was more like a massacre. Most of Blackhawk’s followers were killed as they tried to escape by crossing the Mississippi. Blackhawk was captured and sent to prison.
Trail of Tears The Cherokees refused to leave their homes. In 1838, the Cherokees were forcibly removed by the Georgia militia. Soldiers brutally rounded up 17,000 Cherokees and marched them to the Indian Territory, which is present day Oklahoma. As many as 4,000 Cherokees died on the journey, called the “Trail Of Tears”.
Seminole War The Indians who fought most strongly against the removal were the Seminoles of Florida. Beginning in 1835, the Seminoles and their allies waged fierce guerilla campaigns against the United States Army. The Seminoles were led by Chief Osceola, who was captured in 1837 while waving a flag of truce. The Seminoles fought on despite their leader being captured. The long struggle that is known as the “Seminole War” did not end until 1842. It was the most costly Indian war the United States ever fought.