Presentation on theme: "Indian Removal Act (IRA). Objectives: 1. Identify the reasons for Indian removal. 2. Explain why the trip became known as the "Trail of Tears" for the."— Presentation transcript:
5 Civilized Tribes Many Native Americans still lived in the southeastern part of the United States in the 1830s. These tribes, called the Five Civilized Tribes, established successful farming communities.
A. What was the Indian Removal Act? 1. Law passed in 1830 that gave the gov't the right to exchange land west of the Mississippi River for Indian land in the East. 2. The area west of the Mississippi was dry and seemed unsuitable for farming, so few white Americans lived there.
Cherokee Indians 1. Lived peacefully in the Appalachian Mountains of Georgia and Tennessee 2. Adopted culture of whites - wrote and spoke English 3. Had own written language and newspaper 4. Based their government on the U.S. Constitution
Cherokee Sue For Land 5. Cherokee sued the government of Georgia for taking their land 6. Worcester vs. Georgia - Supreme Court rules Georgia’s actions are illegal and that the Cherokee can stay
D. Was the IRA legal? 1. Yes - Congress passed the law 2. No - The Supreme Court said the Cherokees didn't have to move.
President Andrew Jackson E. “Chief Justice John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it.” 1)What is the job of the Supreme Court? 2)What is the job of the President? 3)What should happen if a government official refuses to do his job?
F. How did the IRA lead to the "Trail of Tears?" 1. Cherokee Indians were forced, at gunpoint, to march from Georgia to Oklahoma. 2. 25% of Cherokee died - most elderly and children
F. How did the IRA lead to the "Trail of Tears?" 1. Cherokee Indians were forced, at gunpoint, to march from Georgia to Oklahoma. 2. 25% of Cherokee died - most elderly and children 4. The Indians were promised $, wagons, blankets and food to move. 5. They didn't get enough wagons, blankets and food. Many Indians walked the 800 miles.
G. Was the IRA a success? 1. Indians - No, they died. 2. Gov't - Yes, they got rid of the Indians and got their land.
H. Native American Resistance 1. Black Hawk, a Sauk chieftain, led a force to Illinois to reclaim land, but federal troops defeated them
1. 1. The Seminole were the only Native Americans who successfully resisted their removal. 2. 2. The Seminole chief Osceola refused to sign the treaties to give up their land. H. Native American Resistance
The Seminole joined forces with a group of escaped slaves. They attacked white settlements on the Florida coast using guerrilla tactics. More than 1,500 American soldiers died in the Seminole wars. The government gave up and allowed the Seminole to remain in Florida. H. Native American Resistance
The slaves who had fought with them, were supposed to be allowed to live with them; however, the government broke their promise and returned them to their previous owners. H. Native American Resistance