2 Isolationism to Internationalism Domestic Affairs- All matters not directly connected to the realm of foreign affairs.Foreign Affairs- A nation’s relationship with other countries.Isolationism- A purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world.Rogue State- A state or nation acting outside accepted norms or policies.
3 Foreign Policy Defined Foreign Policy is made up of all the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries.Treaties, alliances, international trade, the defense budget, foreign economic and military aid, the United Nations and other international organizations, nuclear weapons testing, and disarmament agreements.
4 The State DepartmentThe State Department, headed by the secretary of state, is the President’s right arm in foreign affairs.Website
5 The Secretary of StateThe duties of the secretary relate almost entirely to foreign affairs.
6 Overseas Representatives Some 12,000 men and women now represent the United States as members of the Foreign Service, many of them serving abroad.Under international law, every nation has the right of legation, which is the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives.Ben Franklin- France
7 AmbassadorsAn ambassador is an official representative of a sovereign state in the conduct of foreign affairs.List of AmbassadorsToday, the United States is represented by an ambassador stationed at the capital of each sovereign state this nation recognizes.
10 Special DiplomatsUN- Samantha PowerNATO- Ivo H. Daalder
11 Diplomatic Immunity Pg. 486- 1st paragraph Ambassadors are regularly not subject to the laws of the state from which they are in.They cannot be arrested, sued, or taxed.Their residences cannot be entered or searched without their consent.
12 Passports and VisasA passport is a legal document issued by a state that identifies a person as a citizen of that state.Few countries will admit persons who do not hold valid passports.A visa is a permit to enter another state and must be obtained from the country one wished to enter
14 Section 2: National Security The Defense DepartmentCongress created the Defense Department in order to unify the nation’s armed forces.Established through the National Security Act of 1947.Pg Chart
15 The Secretary of Defense The Department of Defense is headed by the secretary of defense.Two major responsibilities:The President’s chief aide and advisor in making and carrying out defense policy.The operating head of the Defense Department.Chuck Hagel
17 Joint Chiefs of StaffServe as principal military advisors to the secretary of defense, President, and National Security Council.Chairman of Joint ChiefsVice chairmanArmy chief of staffNaval operations chief of staffCommandant of the Marine CorpsAir force chief of staff
22 The Director of National Intelligence Chief Advisor to the President relating to all matters of intelligence.Supervises the operations of the 16 separate agencies that make up the federal intelligence community and directs the work of the National Counterterrorism Center.James R. Clapper
23 The Director of National Intelligence Some of the agencies controlled by the DNI include the FBI, DEA, and CIA.
24 Department of Homeland Security The Department of Homeland Security is charged with the complex task of protecting the United States against terrorism.The Homeland Security Act of 2002 gives the department major operating responsibilities in five specific areas:Border and transportation securityInfrastructure protectionEmergency preparedness and responseChemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear defenseInformation analysis (intelligence)
25 The Department of Homeland Security PgReactions to the reading?
26 Section 3: American Foreign Policy Overview Foreign Policy Through WWIFrom its beginning, and for 150 years, American foreign policy was largely built on a policy of isolationism.Throughout that period, the United States refused to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world
31 World at WarGermany’s submarine campaign against American shipping in the North Atlantic forced the United States out of its isolationist cocoon.Germany and the Central Powers were defeated.Most Americans believed that the issues Europe were of no concern to the United States.
32 World War IIThe United States commitment to isolationism was end by World War II.Pearl Harbor Attack- December 7th, 1941Allied Powers (US, Britain, Russia, China) vs. the Axis Powers (Germany, Japan, Italy)As a result of WWII, the United States was transformed into the mightiest military power in the world.
33 Two New PrinciplesAs a result of WWII, the United States position on foreign policy shifted from isolationism to internationalism.Foreign Policy Objective: Protect the security and well being of the United States.
34 Collective SecurityFollowing WWII, the United States and most of the rest of a war-weary world looked to the principle of collective security to keep international peace.The United Nations (UN) was formed in 1945 to promote international cooperation and so “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.”
35 DeterrenceThe principle of deterrence has been a part of American foreign policy since WWII.Deterrence is the strategy of maintaining military might at so great a level that that very strength will deter- discourage, prevent- an attack on this country by any hostile power.
36 Resisting Soviet Aggression The cold war was a period of more than 40 years during which relations between the two superpowers were at least tense and, more often than not, distinctly hostile.Pg. 498
37 Truman DoctrineThe United States began to counter the aggressive actions of the Soviet Union in the early months of 1947.Pg. 499From 1947 through the 1980’s, the United States followed the policy of containment.US Belief- If communism could be kept within its existing boundaries, it would collapse under the weight of its own external weaknesses.
41 Section 4: Foreign Aid and Alliances Foreign aid- The economic and military aid given to other countries.1% of the federal budget currently.Most foreign aid money must be used to buy American goods and services. Benefits business and labor industries within the United States.
42 Security AlliancesSince WWII, the United States has constructed a network of regional security alliances built on mutual defense treaties.Regional security alliances- Treaties in which the United States and other countries involved have agreed to take collective action to meet aggression in a particular part of the world.
43 NATO The North Atlantic Treaty, signed in 1949, established NATO. Initially formed to promote the collective defense of Western Europe, particularly against the threat of Soviet Aggression.506- MapNATO
44 The United Nations US movement towards internationalism after WWII. San Francisco Spring, 1945“Peace-loving states”508- Primary Source508- UN by the NumbersUN HomepageVideo
51 The Work of the UN Purpose: To make the world a better place. Primary function: Peace- keepingThe UN’s specialized agencies spend some several billion dollars a year for economic and social programs to help some of the world’s poorest nations.
52 United Nations- Health and the Environment A joint program of UNICEF and WHO has immunized 80 percent of the world’s children against six killer diseases, and it is estimated that this program saves more than 2 million children a year.United Nations environmental conventions have helped reduce acid rain, lessened marine pollution, and phased out the production of gases that destroy the ozone layer.