Presentation on theme: "Public Communication and Personal Influence Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:
Public Communication and Personal Influence Chapter 14
What is Civic Engagement? Participating in social concerns. Misconceptions Social concerns are no longer relevant. Participation does not involve “ordinary citizens.” Only focuses on issues of national or international importance. Only involves radical actions
Public Discourse and Relating to Audiences Analyzing audiences’ relationships Relationship with speaker Prior relationship or no prior relationship Audience view of speaker credibility If no prior connection, or negative connection, speaker must build credibility carefully Relationship with the issue, position Audience agreement or opposition changes speaker’s process of persuasion
Public Discourse and Relating to Audiences Analyzing audiences’ relationships (cont.) Attitudes are learned predispositions Beliefs are what people hold to be true or false. Values are deeply held judgments of significance, often basis for attitudes, beliefs. Speakers must consider all three in constructing message.
Public Discourse and Relating to Audiences Speeches to convince impact audience thinking. Claim of policy Claim of value Claim of conjecture Attitudes, values and beliefs influence speaker’s methods.
Public Discourse and Relating to Audiences Speeches to actuate impact audience behavior. Reinforcing existing behavior Altering existing behavior Ceasing existing behavior Avoiding future behavior
Public Discourse and Relating to Audiences Artistic Proofs Ethos involves use speaker credibility Pathos involves use of emotions Logos involves use of logic or reasoning Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Syllogisms Enthymeme
Public Discourse and Relating to Audiences Social Judgment Theory explains response to a range of positions Latitude of acceptance Anchor position Latitude of rejection Latitude of non-commitment
Public Discourse and Relating to Audiences Social Judgment Theory (cont.) Assimilation effect–audience sees position as closer to anchor point when it falls into latitude of acceptance Contrast effect–audience sees position as further from anchor point when it falls into latitude of rejection Speaker must be explicit in conveying goals and consider audience perceptions in constructing argument
Sequential Persuasion Foot in the Door–making a small request followed by a larger one. Self-perception Cognitive dissonance Works for prosocial reasons, when different people make requests, when material incentives are not used.
Sequential Persuasion Door in the Face involves making too large a request, following with second, smaller one. Perceptual contest effect Reciprocal concessions Self-presentation Works best for prosocial, when same person makes both requests, when delay between requests is brief.
Sequential Persuasion Pregiving technique–when given or offered something, people are more likely to comply. Norm of reciprocity Increased liking Most successful when same person makes both requests, relatively brief delay between favor and request, when offer is not seen as bribe or with ulterior motive.
Emotional Appeals Fear and Parallel Process Model Perceived threat must be seen as real and person as susceptible to work. Perceived efficacy–The solution must be perceived to work and to be accomplished.
Emotional Appeals Guilt In advertisement, appeals are made of guilt and path to atonement. Explicit appeals raise feelings of guilt but not likelihood of compliance. Guilt is more likely used in close personal relationships.
Emotional Appeals Lost emotions Anger is positively related to change. Disgust is negatively correlated when associated with a position. Happiness and humor are associated, but with mixed findings of usefulness. Hope has received little attention.
Compliance Gaining Focuses on person doing the persuading. Relational influence goals. Gaining assistance Giving advice Sharing activities Changing orientations Obtaining permission Enforcing rights and obligations