Presentation on theme: "LI 2013 NATHALIE F. MARTIN M ORPHOLOGY. Table of Content At the end of this chapter you will know: Morphemes Affix: prefix, suffix, infixes Derivation."— Presentation transcript:
Morphology Morphology: The analysis of word. The system of categories and rules involved in ______________ and ___________
Main Divisions of Word Classes (Parts of Speech): Content Words Function Words Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Conjunctions Prepositions Articles (or det.) Pronouns
Word and Morpheme Word: the smallest Word: the smallest ___________ Word simple and complex Word simple and complex E.g. Morpheme: the smallest Morpheme: the smallest _________ ______ Morpheme free and bound Morpheme free and bound E.g.
1. ROOT, AFFIX 2. BASE 3. AFFIX: 1. prefix, suffix, infixes Analysing Word Structure
Affixation Prefix: An affix that is attached to the of a base, Prefix: An affix that is attached to the _____ ___ of a base, Ex. Suffix: An affix that is attached to the of a base. Suffix: An affix that is attached to the _______ of a base. Ex.
Affixation Infix: An affix that occur a base Infix: An affix that occur __________a base Ex. (in Indonesian) s-in-ambung. Confix (Circumfix/Ambifix): An affix that is attached to of a base simultaneously Confix (Circumfix/Ambifix): An affix that is attached to ________________ of a base simultaneously Ex.(in Indonesian) ke-lapar-an. Interfix, simulfix, superfix, and transfix. Interfix, simulfix, superfix, and transfix.
Examples of English Affixes -able -ing -ish -ize Anti- Ex- Re- In-
SUFFIXOCATING !!! Can you find the different affixes in this cartoon? What are the meanings of each?
1. ENGLISH DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES 2. COMPLEX DERIVATION 3. CONSTRAINTS IN DERIVATION 4. TWO CLASSES OF DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES Derivation
An affixational process that forms a word with a __________ and/or _________ _ _________ from that of it’s base. Ex:
Examples of English Derivational Affixes See pages 117.
Derivation Illustrated through trees: NV VAfAAf treatmentmodern ize
Complexe Derivations Words with several layers of structure Activation:N V A VAfAfAf Activeateion
Constraints on Derivation The suffix –ant Contest contestant Defend defendant Hunt *Huntant Hunter WHY? The suffix –ant can combine only with ____________________.
Constraints on Derivation The suffix –en white whiten dark darken green *greenen WHY? The suffix –en can combine only a ___________ base that ends in an obstruent (pp. 149–150). How about large ? The suffix –en can combine only a ___________ ________ base that ends in an _________ ( Kwary, 2004). largen ?
1. INFLECTION 2. INFLECTIONS IN ENGLISH Inflection
The modification of a word’s form to _________ the __________________to which it belongs Ex:
English Inflectional Morphemes Nouns –s plural –’spossessive Verbs –sthird person singular present –edpast tense –en past participle –ingprogressive Adjectives –ercomparative –estsuperlative
Derivation vs. Inflection (1) It changes the ______ and/or the ____ of meaning of the word, so it is said to create ____ __ _____. Ex. It does not change either the _____ _ _______ o oo or the ____ _________ f ff found in the word. Ex.
Derivation vs. Inflection (2) AAAA derivational affix must combine with the base _____ an inflectional affix. e.g. neighbour (base) + hood (DA) + s (IA) = neighbourhoods The following combination is unacceptable: neighbour (base) + s (IA) + hood (DA) = *neighbourshood
Derivation vs. Inflection (3) AAAAn inflectional affix in more ___________than a derivational affix. e.g. the inflectional suffix –s can combine with virtually any noun to form a plural noun. On the other hand, the derivational suffix –ant can combine only with Latinate bases.
1. Compounding Definition: Two or more words ___________________ to form a new word. Examples:
Properties of compounds 1. Properties of compounds 1. Lexical category 2. Stress 3. Plural
Note: The meaning of a compound is not always. Note: The meaning of a compound is not always _____________________________. Baby oil blue-movies blue-chip CCoconut oil oil made from coconuts. OOlive oil oil made from olives. oil for babies NOT oil made from babies Endocentric vs Exocentric Compounds
2. Conversion Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new ____________________. Examples: butter (N) to butter the bread permit (V) an entry permit empty (A) to empty the litter-bin
Verbing Taking Nouns and Adjectives and using them as verbs (and conjugating them).
3. Clipping Definition: Shortening a ___________ by ______________________ Examples:
4. Blends Definition: Similar to compounds, but are deleted. Definition: Similar to compounds, but _____ _______________ are deleted. Examples: Examples:
Case Study: Blends or Compunds ‘Wild-haired revolutionaries like Che Guevara have been replaced by clean-cut metrosexual icons like soccer star David Beckham and musician Ricky Martin.’ (cbsnews.com, 25th November 2003). ‘No botox for the Retrosexual. No $1,000 haircuts. The retrosexual man eats red meat heartily and at times kills it himself.’ (The Washington Dispatch, 2nd May 2004). Another recent coinage borne out of the current preoccupation with male stereotyping is the noun and adjective technosexual. (Macmillan Online, January 2005).
5. Back-formations Definition: a process that creates a new word by __________a _______________from another word in the language. Examples: editor (1649) edit (1791) television (1907) televise (1927)
6. Acronyms Definition: Words derived from the ______ of several words Examples: ssevere acute respiratory syndrome SARS SSelf-contained underwater breathing apparatus SCUBA
7. Onomatopoeia Definition: Words created to __________ the thing that they name. EnglishJapaneseTagalogIndonesian Cock-a-dooKokekokkoKuk-kakaukKukuruyuk MeowNyaNiyawMeong
8. Eponyms Definition: Words derived from ______________________. Examples:
“Pronunciation can be sensitive to ______________ factors” Example: English Plural Allomorphs pronounsed: /-s/, /-z/, /- əz / The pronunciation of the suffix « –s » depends on the phonetic context. Ex: www.pearsoned.ca/ogrady www.pearsoned.ca/ogrady