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Morphology: The analysis of word structure

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1 Morphology: The analysis of word structure
Deny A. Kwary

2 Main Divisions of Word Classes (Parts of Speech):
Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Content Words Function Words Conjunctions Prepositions Articles Pronouns

3 Exercise: Determine the word class of each of the following words
betterment the him elegant inconvenience eloquently comply inasmuch as over Noun Article Pronoun Adjective Adverb Verb Conjunction Preposition

4 Word and Morpheme Word: the smallest free form
Morpheme: the smallest meaningful unit Word  simple and complex E.g. hunt and hunter Morpheme  free and bound E.g. hunt and -er

5 Question #1, p.173 Fly  Simple, no bm, fly Desks  Complex, -s, desk
Untie  Complex, un-, tie Tree  Simple, no bm, tree Dislike  Complex, dis-, like Reuse  Complex, re-, use Triumphed  Complex, -ed, triumph Delight  Simple, no bm, delight Justly  Complex, -ly, just

6 Derivation vs. Inflection (1)
It changes the category and/or the type of meaning of the word, so it is said to create a new word. e.g. suffix –ment in government It does not change either the grammatical category or the type of meaning found in the word. e.g. suffix –s in books

7 Derivation vs. Inflection (2)
A derivational affix must combine with the base before an inflectional affix. e.g. neighbour (base) + hood (DA) + s (IA) = neighbourhoods The following combination is unacceptable: neighbour (base) + s (IA) + hood (DA) = *neighbourshood

8 Derivation vs. Inflection (3)
An inflectional affix in more productive than a derivational affix. e.g. the inflectional suffix –s can combine with virtually any noun to form a plural noun. On the other hand, the derivational suffix –ant can combine only with Latinate bases.

9 English Inflectional Morphemes
Nouns –s plural –’s possessive Verbs –s third person singular present –ed past tense –en past participle –ing progressive Adjectives –er comparative –est superlative

10 Inflections in other languages
Case: in Turkish and Latin (p. 166) Tense: in Chibemba (p. 170)

11 Some examples of English Derivational Morpheme
-ic : Noun  Adj ; alcohol  alcoholic -ly : Adj  Adv ; exact  exactly -ate : Noun  Verb ; vaccin  vaccinate -ity : Adj  Noun ; active  activity -ship : Noun  Noun ; friend  friendship re : Verb  Verb ; cover  recover

12 Describe the italic affixes:
impossible terrorized terrorize desks dislike humanity fastest Derivational prefix Inflectional suffix Derivational suffix

13 Describe the italic affixes:
premature untie darken fallen oxen faster lecturer Derivational prefix Derivational suffix Inflectional suffix

14 Page 179 Number 18 Number 19

15 Affixation Prefix: An affix that is attached to the front of a base, e.g. re-play. Suffix: An affix that is attached to the end of a base, e.g. kind-ness. Infix: An affix that occur within a base, e.g. (in Indonesian) s-in-ambung. Confix (Circumfix/Ambifix): An affix that is attached to the front and to the end of a base simultaneously, e.g. (in Indonesian) ke-lapar-an. Interfix, simulfix, superfix, and transfix.

16 Examples of English Affixes
See pages 145 – 146.

17 Homework (Group Assignment): The answers to be presented by each group next week (prepare a PPT file). 1.Define and give examples of the six types of affixes: infix, confix, interfix, simulfix, superfix, dan transfix. Examples can be derived from English, Indonesian, or Arabic. 2. List English Prefixes which are NOT mentioned on page 146. Determine the word class and give two examples for each prefix. 3. List English Suffixes which are NOT mentioned on pp Determine the word class and give two examples for each suffix.

18 Affixation To be continued next week Deny A. Kwary

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