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Almen sproglig viden og metode (General Linguistics)

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Presentation on theme: "Almen sproglig viden og metode (General Linguistics)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Almen sproglig viden og metode (General Linguistics)
Pieter Bruegel, Tower of Babel (1563) Introduction to the Study of Grammar 1: Morphology CLM, Engelsk tt

2 The components of language study
Sound Meaning Grammar Lexicon Morphology Syntax Phonetics Phonology Pragmatics Semantics

3 The components of language
Sound Meaning A language is a system of cognitive procedures for Assigning a Meaning to a sequence of Sounds - Producing a sequence of Sounds to express a Meaning

4 A Model of the Language Faculty
Sound Structure Meaning a perceptual interface for associating sound with meaning Grammar a computational system an interpretive interface an articulatory interface a cognitive interface I-language is a computational module that assigns structure to utterances – to strings of sound received through the perceptual interface to yield as output a representation with semantic content to the interpreting interface to account for utterance understanding, and to cognitive content to yield an output of instructions for articulation to account for utterance production. The representations generated by I-language in either direction are understood to be representations of linguistic structure – phonetic, morphological, syntactic and semantic. In addition a separate module of lexical memory is assumed as one of the cognitive resources that I-language needs to access. The I-language procedures are quite mechanical, extremely fast and outside conscious control, whereas lexical look-up is a bit more tricky to account for. It is likely to be subject to some form of conscious control. I’ll make a small detour on this last point before returning to the account of I-language, since it is directly relevant to interpreting. One of the hot topics of cognitive science in general and cognitive approaches to language studies in particular is the question of modularization. I can’t here go into this in much detail, but one issue is vital in order to appreciate what cognitive science is trying to do. Lexicon

5 Grammar Morphology: the structure of words
Syntax: the structure of sentences

6 Rules Morphology describes the rules by which morphemes combine
into words Syntax describes the rules by which words combine into sentences

7 Morphemes – the smallest units of meaning
To Tom, I’m unexciting, uninteresting, and unattractive What kind of a relationship is that? An unrelationship!

8 Morphology, terms Word: Lexeme, word-form, grammatical word
- The shooter’s shots shot out like shooting stars Morpheme: Bound and free Affix: prefix, suffix - The upshot of the shooting was upsetting Root, stem, base

9 Lexemes Word-forms Grammatical words
shoot shooting shot shoots shooting (gerund) shooting (pres. ptc.) shot (prf.ptc) shot (past) shoots (pres) shoot (pres) SHOOT (V) shots’ (gen. pl) shot’s (gen. sg.) shots (pl) shot (sg) shot shots SHOT (N) shooter (sg) shooters’ (gen. pl) shooter’s (gen. sg) shooters (pl) shooter shooters SHOOTER (N)

10 Free and Bound Morphemes
So I’m hayving as much as I can Mommy said to behave

11 Affixes: prefix and suffix
touch Root s Suffix Prefix un Suffix able

12 Root, base, stem un s able touch
Root = irreducible kernel of a word-form Base = reducible kernel of a word-form to which any affix may be added Stem = base when added affixes are inflectional

13 Morphology, types Inflectional: turns a lexeme into a grammatical word
Ex.: BOY + {Plural}  boys || GO + {PAST}  went Derivational: turns a lexeme into another lexeme Class-maintaining: -dom: king (N) + dom = kingdom (N) Class-changing: -ly: king (N) + -ly = kingly (A) Conversion: love (N) - love (V)

14 Derivational Morphology
- what does that make a humanitarian? That’s strange. If a vegetarian is someone who eats vegetables-

15 Hierarchical struc- ture of words
Adverb stem suffix Adjective stem suffix Adjective stem Prefix Adjective stem suffix Noun root He went about the job very un system atic al ly

16 Making new words out of old
Arachis hypogeae (peanut) + butyr(o) (butter) + phobia (fear)

17 Inflectional Categories and Morphology (1)
Nouns Category Members Forms {-Ø | -s} Number {Singular | Plural} {-Ø | -s} Case {Nominative | Genitive} Personal pronouns Person {First | Second | Third} {I | you | he, she, it} Case {he, she | him, her | his, her(s), its} {Nominative | Accusative | Genitive}

18 Inflectional Categories and Morphology (2)
Verbs Category Members Forms {{-Ø | -s} | -ed} Tense {Present | Past} { -s | -Ø} Mood* {Indicative| Subjunctive} {-Ø | have + -en} {-Ø | be + -ing} Aspect {- | Perfect} {- | Progressive} {-Ø | be + -en} Voice {Active| Passive} * Modality is a category with free forms as members: {can, may, must, shall, will, ought (to)} {-Ø | -s} Number {Singular | Plural} Person {First | Second | Third} {-Ø | -Ø | -s} (Agreeing categories)

19 Inflectional Categories and Morphology (3)
Adjectives Category Members Forms Comparison (Grading) {Positive | Comparative | Superlative} {-Ø | -er | -est}

20 Typology of English Morphemes
Bound Free Affix Root -ceive -mit -fer Open Class Nouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs Closed Class Conjunctions Prepositions Articles Pronouns Auxiliaries Derivational Inflectional Suffix -ing, -er, -s -s, -est, -’s -en -ed Prefix pre- un- con- etc. Suffix -ly -ist -ment

21 Compounds Antelope? - or - an eloping ant!

22 Compounds - A lexeme that contains more than one root
Three main types, depending on meaning: Endocentric: beehive (a kind of hive), armchair (a kind of chair) Appositional: maidservant (both a maid and a servant) Exocentric: redskin (not a kind of skin), highbrow (not a kind of brow) It is always the last root that determines classmembership: - red (A) + skin (N)  N

23 That’s all for now!

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