Presentation on theme: "LI 2013 NATHALIE F. MARTIN M ORPHOLOGY. Table of Content At the end of this chapter you will know: I. Morphemes Morphemes II. Affixation: prefix, suffix,"— Presentation transcript:
Table of Content At the end of this chapter you will know: I. Morphemes Morphemes II. Affixation: prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix Affixation: prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix III. Compound Words Compound Words IV. Lexical Categories Lexical Categories V. Derivation Derivation VI. Inflection Inflection VII. Morphological Typology of Languages Morphological Typology of Languages VIII. Word Formation Word Formation IX. Other morphological phenomenon Other morphological phenomenon Reference: O’Grady & al. (2009); Rowe & al. (2012)
1. MORPHOLOGY 2. SIMPLE VS. COMPLEX WORDS 3. FREE VS. BOUND MORPHEMES I. Morphemes
Morphology Morphology: The analysis of word __________. The system of categories and rules involved in _______________ and __________________.
Word and Morpheme Word: the smallest Word: the smallest _________ (an element that doesn’t have to occur in a fixed position) Word simple vs. complex Word simple vs. complex Ex. Morpheme: the smallest Morpheme: the smallest _________ _________ Morpheme free vs. bound Morpheme free vs. bound Ex.
Question #1, p.139 O’Grady,2009 a. Fly b. Desks c. Untie d. Tree e. Dislike f. Reuse g. Triumphed h. Delight i. Justly O’Grady, 2009
1. ROOT, AFFIX 2. BASE 3. AFFIX: 1. prefix, suffix, infixes & circumfixes II. Affixation
Roots & affixes Root: Serves as a building block for other words (usually, but not always a free morpheme) Affix: Bound morphemes added to the root.
Affixation Prefix: An affix that is attached to the _________ of a base, Ex. re-play. Suffix: An affix that is attached to the _________ of a base. Ex. kind-ness.
Affixation Infix: An affix that occur a base Infix: An affix that occur _________a base Ex: Ex: Tagalog: write = sulat / written = sinulat. The infix -in- changes the verb from present to past tense. Circumfixes: Where you (sometimes surrounding the root). Circumfixes: Where you _________ ___________(sometimes surrounding the root). Ex: Arabic: Book = kitab / Wrote = kataba / has been written= kutib Ex: Hebrew
Hebrew and Affixes The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible By Jeff A. Benner
Hebrew and Affixes הִמְטִיר (hee-teer) This is the verb מטר (M.Th.R) meaning to "rain." The structure of the verb also identifies the verb tense as perfect – he rained. The prefix ה (hee) along with the י (ee) infix, identifies the verb as a hiphil (causative) verb – he made rain, or he caused to rain. But, the preceding word לא negates this verb – he did not cause it to rain. www.ancient-hebrew.org/emagazine/046.doc
Examples of English Affixes -able -ing -ish -ize Anti- Ex- Re- In-
Analyzing Word Structure Underline the root. Circle the affix. Draw a structure diagram. j. Payment k. Spiteful l. Suite m. Fastest n. Deform o. Disobey p. Preplan q. Optionality r. Prettier s. Mistreat t. Premature
CLOSED-FORM COMPOUND HYPHENATED COMPOUND OPEN-FORM COMPOUND III. Compound Words
Compound Words Closed-form compound: Hyphenated compound: Open-form compound:
Brain waves Turnstile What kind of Compound Word is this
Hair plugs Fast food What kind of Compound Word is this?
Syntactic Categories (1) Noun (N) Verb (V) Adjective (A) Preposition (P) Adverb (Adv) moisture, policy melt, remain good, intelligent to, near slowly, now
Syntactic Categories (2) Determiner (Det) Auxiliary (Aux) Conjunction (Con) Interjection the, this, my will, can and, or Oh, goodness sake, whatever
Exercise: Word class a. betterment b. the c. him d. elegant e. inconvenience f. eloquently g. comply h. inasmuch as i. over Determine the word class of each of the following words.
1. ENGLISH DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES 2. COMPLEX DERIVATION 3. CONSTRAINTS IN DERIVATION 4. TWO CLASSES OF DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES V. Derivation
Derivation An affixational process that forms a word with a _____________ and/or ___________ _________from that of it’s base. Ex:
Examples of English Derivational Affixes See pages 117 or O’Grady. O’Grady, 2009
Derivation Illustrated through trees: NV VAfAAf treatmentmodern ize
Let’s Practice Underline the root. Circle the base. Draw a structure diagram. j. Payment k. Spiteful l. Suite m. Fastest n. Deform o. Disobey p. Preplan q. Optionality r. Prettier s. Mistreat t. Premature
Complexe Derivation Words with several layers of structure Activation:N V A VAfAfAf Activeateion
Constraints on Derivation The suffix –ant Contest contestant Defend defendant Hunt *Huntant Hunter WHY? The suffix –ant can combine only with ____________________.
Constraints on Derivation The suffix –en white whiten dark darken green *greenen WHY? The suffix –en can combine only a __________ base that ends in an obstruent. How about large ? The suffix –en can combine only a __________ _______ base that ends in an ________ ( Kwary, 2004). largen ?
1. INFLECTION 2. INFLECTIONS IN ENGLISH VI. Inflection
Inflection The modification of a word’s form to __________the ____________ ________to which it belongs Ex:
T HE 9 E NGLISH I NFLECTIONAL M ORPHEMES Nouns –splural –’spossessive Verbs –sthird person singular present –edpast tense –en past participle –ingprogressive Adjectives –ercomparative –estsuperlative -enpast participle
Derivation vs. Inflection (1) It changes the __________and /or the __________of meaning of the word, so it is said to create __________. Ex: It does not change either the ______ __________or the ________ __________foun d in the word. Ex:
Derivation vs. Inflection (2) AAAA derivational affix must combine with the base __________an inflectional affix. e.g. neighbour (base) + hood (DA) + s (IA) = neighbourhoods The following combination is unacceptable: neighbour (base) + s (IA) + hood (DA) = *neighbourshood
Derivation vs. Inflection (3) AAAAn inflectional affix in more __________than a derivational affix. EX: the inflectional suffix –s can combine with virtually any noun to form a plural noun. On the other hand, the derivational suffix –ant can combine only with Latinate bases.
Describe the italic affixes: 1) im possible 2) terroriz ed 3) terror ize 4) desk s 5) dis like 6) human ity 7) fast est
Describe the italic affixes: 8) pre mature 9) un tie 10) dark en 11) fall en 12) ox en 13) fast er 14) lectur er
I. ANALYTIC (OR ISOLATING) LANGUAGES II. SYNTHETIC LANGUAGES: 1. Fusional (or inflectional) languages 2. Agglitinating Languages 3. Polysynthetic languages VII. Morphological Typology of Languages
Morphological Typology of Languages I. Analytic (or isolating) languages II. Synthetic languages : 1. Fusional (or inflectional) languages 2. Agglitinating Languages 3. Polysynthetic languages
1. COMPOUNDING 2. CONVERSION 3. CLIPPING 4. BLENDING 5. BACK-FORMATION 6. ACRONYMS 7. ONOMATOPOEIA 8. EPONYMS & TRADE NAMES 9. DERIVATION 10. OTHER WORD FORMATION PROCESSES VIII. Word Formation
1. Compounding Definition: Two or more words _______ _____________to form a new word. Examples:
Properties of compounds 1. Properties of compounds 1. Lexical category 2. Stress 3. Plural
Note: The meaning of a compound is not always. Note: The meaning of a compound is not always _____________________________. Baby oil blue-movies blue-chip CCoconut oil oil made from coconuts. OOlive oil oil made from olives. oil for babies NOT oil made from babies Endocentric vs Exocentric Compounds
2. Conversion Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new ____________________. Examples:
Conversion Taking Nouns and Adjectives and using them as verbs (and conjugating them).
Case Study: Blends or Compounds ‘Wild-haired revolutionaries like Che Guevara have been replaced by clean-cut metrosexual icons like soccer star David Beckham and musician Ricky Martin.’ (cbsnews.com, 25th November 2003). ‘No botox for the Retrosexual. No $1,000 haircuts. The retrosexual man eats red meat heartily and at times kills it himself.’ (The Washington Dispatch, 2nd May 2004). Another recent coinage borne out of the current preoccupation with male stereotyping is the noun and adjective technosexual. (Macmillan Online, January 2005).
5. Back-formations Definition: a process that creates a new word by __________a _________________ from another word in the language. Examples:
6. Acronyms Definition: Words derived from the _________of several words Examples:
7. Onomatopoeia Definition: Words created to __________ the thing that they name. EnglishJapaneseTagalogIndonesian Cock-a-dooKokekokkoKuk-kakaukKukuruyuk MeowNyaNiyawMeong
8. Eponyms Definition: Words derived from _____ __ ___ __________. Examples:
9. Derivation Derivation is the process of forming a new word by adding a _______ _____________to a ________. Ex:
9. Other Word Formation Process Foreign word Borrowing
Let’s invent words! Invent words that don’t already exist in English, and then define the process that was used to creat this word.
Intialism or Acronym? Initialism: An abbreviation created by ________ __ __________ (e.g. PEI or USA) as letters rather than a word. Acronym: A word that is forms by ________ ____________of some or all the words in a phrase or title and __________ __________ (e.g. NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Other Morphological Phenomena related to inflection Internal change Process that substitutes one non-morphemic segment for another to mark grammatical contrast. Different than infixing … Examples:
Other Morphological Phenomena related to inflection Suppletion Replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast. Ex:
“Pronunciation can be sensitive to __________factors” Example: English Plural Allomorphs pronounced: /-s/, /-z/, /- əz / The pronunciation of the suffix « –s » depends on the phonetic context. Ex: www.pearsoned.ca/ogrady
Allomorphs p. 95-96 (Rowe & Levine, 2012) Examples: An & a -s The & the Rowe & Levine, 2012