Presentation on theme: "Morphology Morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies the structure of words. In English and many other languages, many words can be broken down."— Presentation transcript:
1 MorphologyMorphology is the branch of linguistics that studies the structure of words.In English and many other languages, many words can be broken down into parts. For example:unhappiness un-happi-nesshorses horse-swalking walk-ing
2 Morphology un - carries a negative meaning ness - expresses a state or qualitys - expresses pluralitying - conveys a sense of durationA word like “yes”, however, has no internal grammatical structure. We can analyze the sounds, but none of them has any meaning in isolation.
3 MorphologyThe smallest unit which has a meaning or grammatical function that words can be broken down into are known as morphemes.So to be clear: “un” is a morpheme.“yes” is also a morpheme, but also happens to be a word.
4 MorphologyThere are several important distinctions that must be made when it comes to morphemes:(1) – Free vs. Bound morphemesFree morphemes are morphemes which can stand alone. We have already seen the example of “yes”.
5 MorphologyBound morphemes: never exist as words themselves, but are always attached to some other morpheme. We have already seen the example of “un”.When we identify the number and types of morphemes that a given word consists of, we are looking at what is referred to as the structure of a word.
6 MorphologyEvery word has at least one free morpheme, which is referred to as the root, stem, or base.We can further divide bound morphemes into three categories:prefix un-happysuffix happi-nessinfix abso-blooming-lutelyThe general term for all three is affix.
7 Morphology (2) – Derivational vs. Inflectional morphemes Derivational morphemes create or derive new words by changing the meaning or by changing the word class of the word. For example:happy → unhappyBoth words are adjectives, but the meaning changes.
8 Morphology quick → quickness The affix changes both meaning and word class - adjective to a noun.In English: Derivational morphemes can be either prefixes or suffixes.
9 MorphologyInflectional morphemes don’t alter words the meaning or word class of a word; instead they only refine and give extra grammatical information about the word’s already existing meaning.For example:Cat → catswalk → walking
10 MorphologyIn English: Inflectional morphemes are all suffixes (by chance, since in other languages this is not true).There are only 8 inflectional morphemes in English:
11 Morphology -s 3rd person sg. present “He waits” -ed past tense “He waited”-ing progressive“He is waiting”
12 Morphology -en past participle “I had eaten” -s plural “Both chairs are broken”-’s possessive“The chair’s leg is broken”
13 Morphology -er comparative “He was faster” -est superlative “He was the fastest”
14 MorphologyInflectional morphemes are required by syntax. (that is, they indicate syntactic or semantic relations between different words in a sentence).For example:Nim loves bananas.but They love bananas.
15 MorphologyDerivational morphemes are different in that syntax does not require the presence of derivational morphemes; they do, however, indicate sematic relations within a word (that is, they change the meaning of the word).For example:kind → unkindHe is unkindThey are unkind
16 Morphology A morpheme is not equal to a syllable: "coats" has 1 syllable, but 2 morphemes."syllable" has 2 syllables, but only 1 morpheme
17 Morphology Types of Word-Formation Processes One of the most productive ways to form new words is through affixation, which is forming new words by the combination of bound affixes and free morphemes.There are three types of affixation:prefixation: where an affix is placed before the base of the word
18 Morphologysuffixation: where an affix is placed after the base of the wordinfixation: where an affix is placed within a stem (abso-blooming-lutely)While English uses primarily prefixation and suffixation, many other languages use infixes.
19 MorphologyIn Tagolog, a language of the Philippines, for example, the infix ‘um’ is used for infinitive forms of verbs (to _______)sulat ‘write’ sumulat ‘to write’bili ‘buy’ bumili ‘to buy’kuha ‘take’ kumuha ‘to take’
20 MorphologyA second word-formation process is known as Compounding, which is forming new words not from bound affixes but from two or more independent words: the words can be free morphemes, words derived by affixation, or even words formed by compounds themselves.e.g. girlfriend air-conditionerblackbird looking-glasstextbook watchmaker
21 MorphologyCompound words have different stress, as in the following examples:1. The wool sweater gave the man a red neck.2. The redneck in the bar got drunk and started yelling
22 MorphologyIn compounds, the primary stress is on the first word only, while individual words in phrases have independent primary stress.blackbird black birdmakeup make up
23 MorphologyA third word-formation process is known as Reduplication, which is forming new words either by doubling an entire free morpheme (total reduplication) or part of a morpheme (partial reduplication).English doesn’t use this, but other languages make much more extensive use of reduplication.
24 MorphologyIn Indonesian, for example, total reduplication is used to form plurals:rumah ‘house’rumahrumah ‘houses’ibu ‘mother’ibuibu ‘mothers’lalat ‘fly’lalatlalat ‘flies’
25 MorphologyA fourth type of word-formation process is known as Blending, where two words merge into each other, such as:brunch from breakfast and lunchsmog from smoke and fog