Presentation on theme: "Supervision in Organizations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 8Motivating Your Employees
2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to: Define motivation.Identify and define the five personality characteristics relevant to understanding the behavior of employees at work.Identify the characteristics that stimulate the achievement drive in high achievers.Identify the three relationships in expectancy theory that determine an individual’s level of effort.List actions a supervisor can take to maximize employee motivation
3 Motivation And Individual Needs The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual needNeedAn internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractiveMany people view motivation incorrectly: thinking it is a personal trait that some have and some don’t. In reality, motivation results from the interaction between the individual and the situation.Motivation is the willingness to exert a persistent and high level of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy an individual need. Motivation is a need-satisfying process.A need is some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. An unsatisfied need creates tension; this tension drives a person to satisfy the need. A motivated employee works intensely and persistently.However, effort and persistence will not pay off unless they are channeled in a direction that benefits the organization.
4 Understanding Individual Differences Common Error among SupervisorsSupervisors often assume that other people are like them (ambition, values, motivated by the same things, etc…)To be a successful supervisor & motivatorRecognize individual differencesSet challenging goalsMatch people to jobsIndividualize rewards
5 Understanding Individual Differences cont… Can Personality Traits Predict Work-Related Behavior?Locus of ControlInternal – belief that you control your own destinyExternal – luck, fate, or powerful others control your own destiny (little personal influence on success)MachiavellianismManipulative behavior based on the belief that the ends can justify the meanHigh Machs – motivated in jobs that entail bargaining (labor negotiator) or rewards (sales commission)
6 Understanding Individual Differences cont… Can Personality Traits Predict Work-Related Behavior?Self-esteemThe degree to which an individual likes or dislikes themselvesHigh SE: believe that they posses ability to succeedLow SE: seek approval from others & are prone to conformanceSelf-monitoringThe ability to adjust behavior to external situational factorsHigh SM: ability to adjust behavior to external factorsLow SM: display true feelings and beliefs
7 Early Theories Of Motivation Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow)There is a hierarchy of five human needs; as each need becomes satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.Physiological: food, drink, shelter, sex(Wages)Safety: physical safety(Benefits/Pension)Social: affiliation with others, affection, friendship(Friendly Co-Workers)Esteem or Ego: achievement, status, and attention(Promotions, Recognition, and Rewards)Self-actualization: personal growth and fulfillmentMeaningful workAccording to Abraham Maslow, within every human being, the following hierarchy of needs exists. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one’s potential. As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next higher need becomes dominant..Physiological. Hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other survival needs.Safety. Security, stability, and protection from physical or emotional harm.Social. Social interaction, affection, companionship, and friendship.Esteem. Self-respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition, and attention.Self-actualization. Growth, self-fulfillment, and achieving one’s potential
8 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological. Hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other survival needs.Safety. Security, stability, and protection from physical or emotional harm.Social. Social interaction, affection, companionship, and friendship.Esteem. Self-respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition, and attention.Self-actualization. Growth, self-fulfillment, and achieving one’s potential
9 Early Theories Of Motivation (cont’d) Theory X (McGregor)The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to performTheory YThe assumption that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-directionDouglas McGregor said that managers hold one of two sets of assumptions about human nature: either Theory X or Theory Y.No hard evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is universally true. It is more likely that the assumptions of Theory X or Theory Y may or may not be appropriate, depending on the situation at hand.
10 Theory X PremisesA manager who views employees from a Theory X (negative) perspective believes:Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.Because employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals.Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.Seeing people as irresponsible and lazy, managers who follow Theory X assume the following:1. Employees inherently dislike work and will try to avoid it.2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened to achieve goals.3. Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction, if possible.4. Most workers place security above all other work-related factors and will display little ambition.
11 Theory Y PremisesA manager who views employees from a Theory Y (positive) perspective believes:Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.Men and women will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives.The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.The ability to make good decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of supervisors.Since they see people as responsible and conscientious, managers who follow Theory Y assume the following:1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.2. When committed to their objectives, people will exercise self- direction and self-control3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.4. Many workers besides managers have innovative decision-making skills.
12 Early Theories Of Motivation (cont’d) Motivation-Hygiene theory (Herzberg)Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfactionHygiene factorsFactors, such as working conditions and salary, that, when adequate, may eliminate job dissatisfaction but do not necessarily increase job satisfaction.MotivatorsFactors, such as recognition and growth, that can increase job satisfaction.Frederick Herzberg asked workers to describe situations in which they felt either good or bad about their jobs. His findings are called motivation-hygiene theory. Herzberg asserted that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction whereas extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction.So, he called company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary hygiene factors. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; however, they will not be satisfied either.He believed that achievement, recognition, the work itself, growth, and responsibility are motivators because people find them intrinsically rewarding.Based on his findings, Herzberg proposed the existence of a dual continuum: the opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction,” and the opposite of “dissatisfaction” is “no dissatisfaction.”
13 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Based on his findings, Herzberg proposed the existence of a dual continuum: the opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction,” and the opposite of “dissatisfaction” is “no dissatisfaction.”
14 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Frederick Herzberg asked workers to describe situations in which they felt either good or bad about their jobs. His findings are called motivation-hygiene theory. Herzberg asserted that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction whereas extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction.So, he called company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary hygiene factors. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; however, they will not be satisfied either.He believed that achievement, recognition, the work itself, growth, and responsibility are motivators because people find them intrinsically rewarding.
15 Contemporary Theories Of Motivation Need for Achievement (nAch):the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.High Achievers (10-20% of U.S. Population)Want to do things betterDesire rapid and unambiguous feedbackDesire personal responsibilityIntrinsically motivatedBelieve in a 50/50 chance for successAvoid what they perceive to be very easy or very difficult tasks (intermediate degrees of risk)Not good supervisorsDavid McClelland proposed the three-needs theory which asserts that there are three relevant motives or needs that motivate behavior in the workplace:1. The need for achievement (nAch) is the need to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to succeed.2. The need for power (nPow) is the need to shape and control the behavior of others.3. The need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for interpersonal relationships. He believed that these needs are acquired from the culture of a society.Some people have a compelling drive to succeed, but they strive for personal achievement, not for the rewards of success, per se (nAch). These high achievers seek situations in which they can take responsibility for solving problems, can receive rapid unambiguous feedback on performance, and can set moderately challenging goals.Persons with a high need for power (nPow) desire to be influential, in charge, and seek competitive, status-oriented situations.Those who have a high need for affiliation (nAff) want to be liked and accepted by others; so, they strive for friendships, cooperation, and high-trust situations.
16 Contemporary Theories Of Motivation (cont’d) Equity theory (Adams)Employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put into it (inputs) and then compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratios of relevant others.InputsEffortExperienceEducationCompetenceOutcomesSalary levelsRaisesRecognitionEquity theory proposes that inequity creates tension, and that this tension can cause an employee to seek fairness. Workers compare their job inputs and outcomes with others.There are three possible perceptions:1. Inequity due to being under-rewarded.2. Equity3. Inequity due to being over-rewarded.
17 Equity Theory Relationships Perceived Ratio ComparisonEmployee’s AssessmentEquity theory establishes four propositions relating to inequitable pay:Given payment by time, over-rewarded employees will produce more than those paid equitably.Given payment by quantity of production, over-rewarded employees will produce fewer, but higher quality units, than will equitably paid employees.Given payment by time, under-rewarded employees will produce less or poorer quality of output.Given payment by quantity of production, under-rewarded employees will produce a large number of low-quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees.*Person A is the employee, and Person B is a relevant other or referent.
18 Expectancy Theory (Vroom) A theory of motivation that an individual tends to act in a certain way (effort), in the expectation that the act will be followed by given outcome (performance-reward), and according to the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.Effort-performanceThe perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performancePerformance-rewardThe belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcomeAttractivenessThe importance placed on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job.Expectancy theory argues that an employee will be motivated to produce more when he or she believes that the effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards; and that the rewards will satisfy the employee’s personal goals.
19 Expectancy Theory (cont’d) Emphasizes self interest in the alignment of rewards with employee wants.Addresses why employees view certain outcomes (rewards) as attractive or unattractive.Emphasizes the connections among expected behaviors, rewards, and organizational goals.Is concerned with individual perceptions and the provision of feedback.
21 Establishing an Motivating Atmosphere Recognize Individual DifferencesMatch People to JobsSet Challenging GoalsEncourage ParticipationIndividualize RewardsLink Rewards to PerformanceCheck for EquityDon’t Ignore Money!!!
22 Designing Motivating Jobs Skill varietyThe degree to which the job requires a variety of activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talentsTask identityThe degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of workTask significanceThe degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other peopleSkill variety. Does the job require workers to use different skills and abilities?Task identity. Does the job require workers to complete identifiable pieces of work?Task significance. Does the job have a significant impact on the lives or work of others?
23 Designing Motivating Jobs (cont’d) AutonomyThe degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it outFeedbackThe degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performanceAutonomy. Does the job allow workers substantial freedom, discretion, and independence?Feedback. Does the job allow workers to obtain direct, clear performance information?
25 Work-Life Balance: Alternative Work Schedules FlextimeA scheduling option that allows employees select what their work hours will be within some specified parameters.Job sharingA type part-time work that allows two or more workers to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week jobTelecommutingA system of working at home on a computer that is linked to the officeFlextime allows employees some discretion over when they arrive and leave work. While they still work a specified number of hours, workers can vary the hours within constraints. Flextime offers several benefits: improved employee motivation and recruitment of higher qualified, more diverse workers. But, flextime is not applicable to every job. It works best with clerical tasks that require minimal employee contact with persons outside of the organization.A special type of part-time work, job sharing allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job. Therefore, the organization can draw upon the talents of more than one person for a given job and acquire skilled workers who are only available part-time. However, it is hard to find compatible employees who can coordinate job responsibilities.No commute time, flexible hours, no dress code, and few interruptions are some of the benefits of telecommuting: employees working at home on a computer that is linked to their office.The long-term future of telecommuting depends on the answers to some questions:Will work-at-home employees be at a disadvantage in office politics? Will they be less likely to be considered for pay raises or promotions? Will non-work distractions reduce productivity?
26 Motivation & Compensation Alternatives Pay-for-performance programsCompensation plans such as piece-rate plans, profit sharing, and the like that pay employees on the basis of performance measures not directly related to time spent on the job.Competency-based compensationA program that pays and rewards employees on the basis of skills, knowledge, or behaviors they possessEmployee stock ownership planA program that allows employees to purchase company stock at a fixed price and profit when company performance increases its stock value.A competency-based compensation program pays and rewards employees on the basis of their skills, knowledge, or behaviors.One of the toughest challenges a manager can face is motivating minimum-wage workers. Money is important. But, managers should also use other rewards: for instance, employee recognition programs, praise, and employee empowerment.Professional and technical employees are loyal to their fields of expertise, typically more so than to their employers.To stay current, they need to update their knowledge regularly. They rarely define their workweek in terms of 9-to-5 and 5 days a week. They tend to be paid well and enjoy what they do; so money and promotions are low on their priority list. They like challenging jobs and want others to think that what they are doing is important. Managers should give professional and technical employees new assignments and challenging projects. They should be given autonomy and rewarded with educational opportunities and recognition.
27 Flexibility: The Key To Motivating A Diverse Workforce Recognizing the different personal needs and goals of individualsProviding a diversity of rewards to match the varied needs of employeesBeing flexible in accommodating the cultural differences within a diverse workforce when attempting to motivate workers.When motivating a diverse workforce, flexibility is the key. Employees have different needs and goals that they hope to satisfy through work. So, the rewards system must be flexible to meet their diverse needs. Managers must also be sensitive to cultural differences. Most of the theories of motivation were developed by psychologists who were studying American workers. For instance, theories based on self-interest that are applicable in cultures that value capitalism and individualism may be of questionable value in collectivist cultures. Managers cannot assume that motivation concepts are universally applicable, so they must adjust motivation techniques according to the culture.