8 Herzberg’s Two Factor Model Ideas developed through work with engineers and scientistsJob satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are separate, not two ends of a single scaleOne group of factors prevents dissatisfaction, but does not cause satisfactionAnother group of factors cause satisfactionQuestion: does satisfaction lead to performance?Traditionally, we said YesHowever, performance may cause satisfactionBut, satisfaction is related to turnover
10 McClelland - Needs Three basic human needs N Ach performance AchievementPowerAffiliationN Ach performanceTested on large scale basisN Ach (children’s stories)National performance (utility usage)
11 Accept responsibility Theories X and YLittle ambitionDislike workAvoid responsibilitySelf-directedEnjoy workAccept responsibilityTheory XTheory Y
12 Motivating with Money Does money matter? According to Herzberg, no But…..
13 Process Models Behavior modification Goal setting VIE Equity Theory Job Characteristics Model
14 Behavior Modification Basic psychological theoryPavlovSkinnerBehavior is a function of its consequencesSome say….assumes that people have little free will
15 Basic Terms Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Extinction PunishmentShaping:Reward close approximations, then closer approximations, until desired response is achieved
16 How it Works Consequence Contingency Reward Punishment Positive ReinforcementPunishmentContingencyApplyWithholdExtinctionNegativeReinforcement
17 Schedules of Reinforcement FIXED INTERVALReinforcement occurs at fixed intervals of time: the bimonthly paycheck.VARIABLE INTERVALReinforcement occurs at random intervals of time: the supervisor visits the employee, on no fixed or set schedule, to praise at that time.FIXED RATIOReinforcement occurs after a set number of behaviors: piece rate pay.VARIABLE RATIOReinforcement occurs after a random number of behaviors: gambling, especially slot machines.
18 Using ReinforcementIf workers are positively reinforced for their high performance, they will work harder.If workers receive immediate reinforcement for their hard work, they will work harder than if their reinforcement is delayed.Frequent reinforcement of positive behavior and infrequent reinforcement of negative behavior results in higher performance.Workers will work harder if their reinforcements for work are somewhat random.If a positive work behavior is never reinforced, it will be extinguished.Reinforcements may be of several different kinds and must be tied to the individual worker.If workers are rewarded for even small increases in performance, then greater performance may result.
19 Goal Setting Goals lead to performance Specific goals lead to higher performance than general goalsPerformance increases in proportion to goal difficulty -- but goals should be attainableGoals must be acceptedGoals should be linked to feedback and rewards
20 What is a Good Goal ? Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic, rewardedTimelyFeedbackIntegrated, IntermediateChallenging, clear
21 Using Goal SettingWorkers work harder if they have goals to strive for.Workers work harder if they have goals that are high and challenging, rather than easy or unattainable.If goals are clear and understandable, workers will work harder.If workers have a chance to participate in setting goals, they will be more committed to attaining those goals.If larger goals are broken down into short-term goals, workers will receive more frequent feedback about goal accomplishment and, thus, strive harder to meet those goals.If employees know what the consequences of goal accomplishment are (for themselves and the organization), they will strive harder to meet those goals.If individual goals are integrated with organizational goals, workers will work harder.If progress toward goal accomplishment is measurable and feedback is given, the workers will strive harder to meet those goals.Workers work harder if goals are specific, rather than general or “do your best”.
22 The Complex Model…. V E2 E1 Perceived Equity of Rewards Value of Skills, Abilitiesand TraitsExtrinsicRewardsEffortPerformance GoalsE2SatisfactionE1RolePerceptionIntrinsicRewardsPerceivedEffort-RewardProbability
23 A Simplified Model Individual Effort Individual Performance Expectancy = Effort-PerformanceOrganizationalRewards= Performance-Reward= AttractivenessIndividualGoals
24 Equity TheoryEmployees must believe they are treated fairly, or motivation will wane. Equity theory maintains that employees evaluate their inputs (IS) in relation to their outcomes (OS) as compared to the inputs (IO) and outcomes (OO) of others to determine fairness.
25 Responses to Perceived Inequity Change perception of own outputsChange perception of own inputsChange own outputs (ask for raise)Change own inputs (work less)Change perception of others’ inputs or outputsChoose a different referentWithdraw from situation (quit)
26 Job Characteristics Model Personal andWork OutcomesHigh InternalWork MotivationHigh-QualityWork PerformanceHigh SatisfactionWith the WorkLow AbsenteeismAnd TurnoverCore JobDimensionsSkill VarietyTask IdentityTask SignificanceAutonomyFeedbackCriticalPsychological StatesExperiencedMeaningfulnessof the WorkResponsibility forKnowledge of theActual Results of theWork ActivitiesStrength of Employee Growth Need