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Motivation Definitions Content models Process models

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation Definitions Content models Process models"— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation Definitions Content models Process models
Putting it into action

2 What is Motivation? “Willingness to exert effort to reach organizational goals” The force that starts, sustains, and directs activity Need Drive Search Tension Reduction Sat. FB

3 Why Does it Matter? Ability Motivation Performance

4 Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
Where does our motivation come from? Extrinsic = external rewards Intrinsic = rewards from the task itself Application to domains of human activity

5 Content vs. Process Content Process What motivates us?
How are we motivated?

6 Content Models Maslow Herzberg McClelland Theory X, Theory Y

7 Maslow’s Pyramid Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological

8 Herzberg’s Two Factor Model
Ideas developed through work with engineers and scientists Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are separate, not two ends of a single scale One group of factors prevents dissatisfaction, but does not cause satisfaction Another group of factors cause satisfaction Question: does satisfaction lead to performance? Traditionally, we said Yes However, performance may cause satisfaction But, satisfaction is related to turnover

9 Hygiene vs. Motivators

10 McClelland - Needs Three basic human needs N Ach  performance
Achievement Power Affiliation N Ach  performance Tested on large scale basis N Ach (children’s stories) National performance (utility usage)

11 Accept responsibility
Theories X and Y Little ambition Dislike work Avoid responsibility Self-directed Enjoy work Accept responsibility Theory X Theory Y

12 Motivating with Money Does money matter? According to Herzberg, no

13 Process Models Behavior modification Goal setting VIE Equity Theory
Job Characteristics Model

14 Behavior Modification
Basic psychological theory Pavlov Skinner Behavior is a function of its consequences Some say….assumes that people have little free will

15 Basic Terms Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Extinction
Punishment Shaping: Reward close approximations, then closer approximations, until desired response is achieved

16 How it Works Consequence Contingency Reward Punishment Positive
Reinforcement Punishment Contingency Apply Withhold Extinction Negative Reinforcement

17 Schedules of Reinforcement
FIXED INTERVAL Reinforcement occurs at fixed intervals of time: the bimonthly paycheck. VARIABLE INTERVAL Reinforcement occurs at random intervals of time: the supervisor visits the employee, on no fixed or set schedule, to praise at that time. FIXED RATIO Reinforcement occurs after a set number of behaviors: piece rate pay. VARIABLE RATIO Reinforcement occurs after a random number of behaviors: gambling, especially slot machines.

18 Using Reinforcement If workers are positively reinforced for their high performance, they will work harder. If workers receive immediate reinforcement for their hard work, they will work harder than if their reinforcement is delayed. Frequent reinforcement of positive behavior and infrequent reinforcement of negative behavior results in higher performance. Workers will work harder if their reinforcements for work are somewhat random. If a positive work behavior is never reinforced, it will be extinguished. Reinforcements may be of several different kinds and must be tied to the individual worker. If workers are rewarded for even small increases in performance, then greater performance may result.

19 Goal Setting Goals lead to performance
Specific goals lead to higher performance than general goals Performance increases in proportion to goal difficulty -- but goals should be attainable Goals must be accepted Goals should be linked to feedback and rewards

20 What is a Good Goal ? Specific Measurable Attainable
Realistic, rewarded Timely Feedback Integrated, Intermediate Challenging, clear

21 Using Goal Setting Workers work harder if they have goals to strive for. Workers work harder if they have goals that are high and challenging, rather than easy or unattainable. If goals are clear and understandable, workers will work harder. If workers have a chance to participate in setting goals, they will be more committed to attaining those goals. If larger goals are broken down into short-term goals, workers will receive more frequent feedback about goal accomplishment and, thus, strive harder to meet those goals. If employees know what the consequences of goal accomplishment are (for themselves and the organization), they will strive harder to meet those goals. If individual goals are integrated with organizational goals, workers will work harder. If progress toward goal accomplishment is measurable and feedback is given, the workers will strive harder to meet those goals. Workers work harder if goals are specific, rather than general or “do your best”.

22 The Complex Model…. V E2 E1 Perceived Equity of Rewards Value of
Skills, Abilities and Traits Extrinsic Rewards Effort Performance Goals E2 Satisfaction E1 Role Perception Intrinsic Rewards Perceived Effort-Reward Probability

23 A Simplified Model Individual Effort Individual Performance Expectancy
= Effort-Performance Organizational Rewards = Performance-Reward = Attractiveness Individual Goals

24 Equity Theory Employees must believe they are treated fairly, or motivation will wane. Equity theory maintains that employees evaluate their inputs (IS) in relation to their outcomes (OS) as compared to the inputs (IO) and outcomes (OO) of others to determine fairness.

25 Responses to Perceived Inequity
Change perception of own outputs Change perception of own inputs Change own outputs (ask for raise) Change own inputs (work less) Change perception of others’ inputs or outputs Choose a different referent Withdraw from situation (quit)

26 Job Characteristics Model
Personal and Work Outcomes High Internal Work Motivation High-Quality Work Performance High Satisfaction With the Work Low Absenteeism And Turnover Core Job Dimensions Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Critical Psychological States Experienced Meaningfulness of the Work Responsibility for Knowledge of the Actual Results of the Work Activities Strength of Employee Growth Need

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