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Chapter 6.4: The Building Blocks of Life

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6.4: The Building Blocks of Life"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6.4: The Building Blocks of Life
Page 166

2 Organic Chemistry The element carbon is a component of almost all biological molecules Life on Earth is considered carbon-based Organic chemistry – study of compounds containing carbon

3 Macromolecules Small carbon compounds serve as building blocks for large molecules Macromolecules are large molecules formed by joining smaller molecules These large molecules are also called polymers Polymers are made up of repeating, smaller units called monomers Polymer = monomer + monomer + monomer + …

4 4 Types of Macromolecules
Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

5 Carbohydrates Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Sugars (glucose, monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides) Bread, pasta, sugar Function: Energy source (short term) Provide structural support in plant cell walls (cellulose) Main component in the hard outer shell of insects and shell fish (called chitin)

6 Lipids/Fats Composed of elements carbon and hydrogen Waxes, fats, oils
Composed of fatty acids and glycerol (called a triglyceride) Main function: long term energy storage Other examples: phospholipids (cell membrane structure), steroids

7 Proteins Composed of small monomers called amino acids
Amino acids are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur Function: Muscles, skin, hair are all made of proteins Structural support, transport substances Communicate signals within cells Speed up chemical reactions (enzymes) Control cell growth

8 Nucleic Acids Store and transmit genetic information
Made of small monomers called nucleotides Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorous Two types: DNA and RNA

9 Review If an unknown substance found on a meteorite is determined to contain no trace of carbon, can scientists conclude that there is life at the meteorite’s origin? A polymer is made up of smaller units called … Another word for a polymer is … List the elements that are found in carbohydrates

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