Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules Chapter 6.4 Pages"— Presentation transcript:
1 MacromoleculesChapter 6.4PagesEQ: How is chemistry related to the growth and survival of living organisms?
2 6.4: The Building Blocks of Life The elements of life:Organisms are made up of cells. Cells contain molecules made up of the following elements:CHNOPSCarbon (C)Hydrogen (H)Nitrogen (N)Oxygen (O)Phosphorus (P)Sulfur (S)These elements come from the foods we eat.
3 Matter Cannot be Created nor Destroyed! It gets recycled!!!!
10 Carbon: All life on Earth is made of carbon-containing molecules. Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms.Examples:Glucose (C6H1206)& Carbon Dioxide (CO2)The chemistry of all living things is based on the key element: CARBON
11 Organic Chemistry:Because of the many important and unique properties of carbon-based molecules, there is a special branch of chemistry devoted just to the study of these molecules.Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon.The carbon compounds we are studying are called Macromolecules.
12 There are 4 major categories of macromolecules: CarbohydratesCHOLipidsProteinsCHONPSNucleic AcidsCHNOP
13 Macromolecules -Are large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together.Monomer – a single molecule that can bindto several others just like it to form a polymer.Polymer – many monomers linked togetherby covalent bonds.
14 Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together Hydrolysis: Process that breaks Polymers into MONOMERS*Water is USED*Honors only?Dehydration Synthesis: Process that combines MONOMERS intoPOLYMERS*Water is RELEASED*
16 1.Carbohydrates: composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO). Functions as energy source for organisms or as structural parts of cellsCarbohydrates include sugars and starchesFound in breads, pastas, candyCHO’s:monosaccharide = glucosedisaccharides = sucrose (table sugar)lactose (milk sugar)polysaccharide – glycogen is an energy storage form of glucose found in the liver and muscles.When the body needs energy and no glucose is available, the body will break glycogen down into glucose.Plants – cellulose is a carbohydrate which provides structural support for the plant’s cell walls.
17 1.Carbohydrates:The monomer that is joined together to form carbohydrates is a simple sugar, called a monosaccharide.Examples of monomers: Glucose, SucroseThe polymer is a polysaccharide (means the same thing as carbohydrate)CHO’s:monosaccharide = glucosedisaccharides = sucrose (table sugar)lactose (milk sugar)polysaccharide – glycogen is an energy storage form of glucose found in the liver and muscles.When the body needs energy and no glucose is available, the body will break glycogen down into glucose.Plants – cellulose is a carbohydrate which provides structural support for the plant’s cell walls.
18 2. Lipids Are made up of carbons and hydrogens (mostly). Function as long-term energy storage (fat cells) and provides barriers (plasma membrane)The monomers of lipidsare called fatty acids (andGlycerol)The polymer is lipidPolyunsaturated fats are fats with more than one double bond in the tail.
19 2.Lipids Examples of lipids are fats, oils, waxes, and steroids. Two types of lipidsSaturated – if only single bonds between carbon atomsSolid at room temp. (example – butter)Unsaturated – if one or more double bonds between C atomsLiquid at room temp. (example - olive oil)Polyunsaturated fats are fats with more than one double bond in the tail.
20 Phospholipids Make up the Plasma Membrane: Lipids are nonpolar molecules which makes them great to use as barriers.
22 3.Proteins Made of monomers called amino acids. Amino acids are small compounds made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sometimes sulfur.Peptide bonds join the amino acids togetherThe polymer is protein, but is sometimes called a polypeptideAll amino acids share the same general structure:Central carbon atomAmino groupCarboxyl groupVariable side chain – there are 20 different onesSeveral covalent bonds called peptide bonds join aa’s together to form protein chains.
23 Proteins (cont.) Muscle, skin, hair are made up of proteins Cells contain 10,000 different proteins!Functions of proteinscontrol reaction ratesform bone and muscletransport materialsfight diseaseExamples of proteins include meat, muscle, bone, and enzymes
24 Proteins (cont.)Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acidsAmino acids interact to give a protein its shapeThe structure also determines the function of the protein.Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function
25 Nucleic Acids:Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information. Two types:DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)RNA (ribonucleic acid)The monomers are called nucleotides which are composed ofSugarphosphate groupnitrogen base
27 Nucleic Acids Examples: DNA storesgenetic informationRNA builds proteinsDNARNADNA is double-stranded, and RNA is single-stranded
28 What have you learned?The four classes of macromolecules important to life are _______, _______, _______, and ________.What molecules are the monomers for carbohydrates?What molecules are the monomers for proteins?Proteins are used for __________ or as ___________.What molecules are the monomers for Lipids?Name 2 other roles can lipids play in living things besides acting as energy storage molecules.What is the main function of nucleic acids in living things?Name the two types of nucleic acids.What molecules are the monomers for nucleic acids?What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
29 Warm-up 1. What is the monomer of proteins? 2. What is the name of the bond that binds amino acids?3. What is the other name for proteins (other polymer name)?What is the monomer of nucleic acids?
30 “Macromolcule”______ are important to living things two of there functions are_________and _________.Macromolocules are made up of ____________ which are small single units of an organic compound. When they are joined together they form _____________._______ monomer is called_________.Two examples of a ___________ are ______ and ____