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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules

2 Organic Compounds Organic compounds contain the element carbon
Other elements often found in organic compounds include: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus Trace amounts of other elements such as calcium, potassium and sulfur are also present

3 Carbon Carbon has four outer electrons and can form four covalent bonds Carbon can form single, double, triple, or quadruple bonds Carbon compounds can be in the shape of straight chains, branched chains and rings

4 Macromolecules Large molecules formed by joining small organic molecules Polymers are molecules made from repeating units of identical or nearly identical compounds linked together by a series of covalent bonds

5 Macromolecules Four types, the building blocks of living things
Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

6 Macromolecules Function Example Carbohydrate Stores energy
Provides structural support Sugar Bread Cellulose Lipid Provides steroids Waterproofs coatings Barrier Cell membrane Fats and Oils Cholesterol Hormones Protein Transports substances Speeds reactions Structural support Enzymes Amino acids Muscle Skin and Hair Nucleic Acid Stores and communicates genetic information DNA RNA Macromolecules

7 What do you think of when you hear carbohydrates?
Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, milk and vegetables.

8 Simple or Complex Complex carbohydrates provide vitamins, minerals and fiber Foods such as breads, legumes, pasta and starchy vegetables

9 Carbohydrates Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (COH)
Simple sugars (monosaccharides) to more complex carbs (disaccharides and polysaccharides) Provides energy – several food examples Structural support – plant cell walls and insects exoskeleton Starch, cellulose, glycogen

10 Glycogen (polysaccharide)
Energy source Glycogen – formed of glucose (polymer) When the body needs energy it breaks down glycogen

11 A carbohydrate called cellulose provides structural support in cell walls
Cellulose chains of glucose linked together in tough fibers

12 Lipids Molecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen
Fats, Oils, waxes, cell membrane (phospholipids), steroids (cholesterol and hormones) Store energy – fats and oils Coating prevent water loss – waxes Barrier Wax – example plant leaf coating and beeswax

13 Lipids A triglyceride is a fat if it is solid at room temperature and an oil if it is liquid at room temperature. Lipids that have tail chains with only single bonds between the carbon atoms are called saturated fats. Lipids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms in the tail chain are called unsaturated fats. Fats with more than one double bond in the tail are called polyunsaturated fats.

14 Lipids Saturated Fats – chain of single bonds between carbons
Unsaturated Fats – at least one double bond in the carbon chain

15 Phospholipid is a special lipid that is responsible for the structure and function of the cell membrane Hydrophilic – “water-loving” Hydrophobic – “water-fearing” which means does not dissolve in water Serves as a barrier

16 Proteins Protein function
Amino acids – small compounds that make up large protein compounds Amino acids are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen hydrogen, and sometimes sulfur Protein function Provide structural suppport Transport substances inside the cell and between cells Speed up chemical reactions (enzymes) Control cell growth

17 Protein Structure Protein Structure 4 levels

18 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acid is a complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information DNA and RNA Nucleotides – repeating subunit of nucleic acid composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and hydrogen atoms 6 major nucleotides

19 Nucleotide in DNA


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