2 Organic Compounds Organic compounds contain the element carbon Other elements often found in organic compounds include: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorusTrace amounts of other elements such as calcium, potassium and sulfur are also present
3 CarbonCarbon has four outer electrons and can form four covalent bondsCarbon can form single, double, triple, or quadruple bondsCarbon compounds can be in the shape of straight chains, branched chains and rings
4 MacromoleculesLarge molecules formed by joining small organic moleculesPolymers are molecules made from repeating units of identical or nearly identical compounds linked together by a series of covalent bonds
5 Macromolecules Four types, the building blocks of living things CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic Acids
6 Macromolecules Function Example Carbohydrate Stores energy Provides structural supportSugarBreadCelluloseLipidProvides steroidsWaterproofs coatingsBarrierCell membraneFats and OilsCholesterolHormonesProteinTransports substancesSpeeds reactionsStructural supportEnzymesAmino acidsMuscleSkin and HairNucleic AcidStores and communicates genetic informationDNARNAMacromolecules
7 What do you think of when you hear carbohydrates? Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, milk and vegetables.
8 Simple or ComplexComplex carbohydrates provide vitamins, minerals and fiber Foods such as breads, legumes, pasta and starchy vegetables
9 Carbohydrates Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (COH) Simple sugars (monosaccharides) to more complex carbs (disaccharides and polysaccharides)Provides energy – several food examplesStructural support – plant cell walls and insects exoskeletonStarch, cellulose, glycogen
10 Glycogen (polysaccharide) Energy sourceGlycogen – formed of glucose (polymer)When the body needs energy it breaks down glycogen
11 A carbohydrate called cellulose provides structural support in cell walls Cellulose chains of glucose linked together in tough fibers
12 Lipids Molecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen Fats, Oils, waxes, cell membrane (phospholipids), steroids (cholesterol and hormones)Store energy – fats and oilsCoating prevent water loss – waxesBarrierWax – example plant leaf coating and beeswax
13 LipidsA triglyceride is a fat if it is solid at room temperature and an oil if it is liquid at room temperature.Lipids that have tail chains with only single bonds between the carbon atoms are called saturated fats.Lipids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms in the tail chain are called unsaturated fats.Fats with more than one double bond in the tail are called polyunsaturated fats.
14 Lipids Saturated Fats – chain of single bonds between carbons Unsaturated Fats – at least one double bond in the carbon chain
15 Phospholipid is a special lipid that is responsible for the structure and function of the cell membraneHydrophilic – “water-loving”Hydrophobic – “water-fearing” which means does not dissolve in waterServes as a barrier
16 Proteins Protein function Amino acids – small compounds that make up large protein compoundsAmino acids are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen hydrogen, and sometimes sulfurProtein functionProvide structural suppportTransport substances inside the cell and between cellsSpeed up chemical reactions (enzymes)Control cell growth
18 Nucleic AcidsNucleic acid is a complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic informationDNA and RNANucleotides – repeating subunit of nucleic acid composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and hydrogen atoms6 major nucleotides