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Chapter 6.4 Pages 166-171 EQ: How is chemistry related to the growth and survival of living organisms?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6.4 Pages 166-171 EQ: How is chemistry related to the growth and survival of living organisms?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6.4 Pages 166-171 EQ: How is chemistry related to the growth and survival of living organisms?

2 6.4: The Building Blocks of Life The elements of life: Organisms are made up of cells. Cells contain molecules made up of the following elements: CHONP Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) These elements come from the foods we eat.

3 Carbon: All life on Earth is made of carbon- containing molecules. Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. Examples: Glucose (C6H1206) & Carbon Dioxide (CO2) The chemistry of all living things is based on the key element: CARBON

4 Organic Chemistry: Because of the many important and unique properties of carbon-based molecules, there is a special branch of chemistry devoted just to the study of these molecules. Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon. The carbon compounds we are studying are called Macromolecules.

5 There are 4 major categories of macromolecules: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids http://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysyste ms/bodychemistry/

6 Macromolecules - Are large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together. Monomer – a single molecule that can bind to several others just like it to form a polymer. Polymer – many monomers linked together by covalent bonds.

7 Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together Hydrolysis: Process that breaks Polymers into MONOMERS *Water is USED* Condensation: Process that combines MONOMERS into POLYMERS *Water is RELEASED*

8 1.Carbohydrates: composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO). Functions as energy source for organisms or as structural parts of cells Carbohydrates include sugars and starches Found in breads, pastas, candy

9 1.Carbohydrates: The monomer that is joined together to form carbohydrates is a simple sugar, called a monosaccharide. Examples of monomers: Glucose, Sucrose The polymer is a polysaccharide (means the same thing as carbohydrate)

10 2. Lipids Are made up of carbons and hydrogens (mostly). Function as long-term energy storage (fat cells) and provides barriers (plasma membrane) The monomers of lipids are called fatty acids (and Glycerol) The polymer is lipid

11 2.Lipids Examples of lipids are fats, oils, waxes, and steroids. Two types of lipids Saturated – if only single bonds between carbon atoms Solid at room temp. (example – butter) Unsaturated – if one or more double bonds between C atoms Liquid at room temp. (example - olive oil)

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13 Phospholipids Make up the Plasma Membrane: Lipids are nonpolar molecules which makes them great to use as barriers.

14 End Part 1!

15 8/27/12 Warm-up: What is a polymer? What are the 4 major macromolecules? 1. 2. 3. 4.

16 3.Proteins Made of monomers called amino acids. Amino acids are small compounds made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sometimes sulfur. Peptide bonds join the amino acids together The polymer is protein, but is sometimes called a polypeptide All amino acids share the same general structure:

17 Proteins (cont.) Muscle, skin, hair are made up of proteins Cells contain 10,000 different proteins! Functions of proteins control reaction rates form bone and muscle transport materials fight disease Examples of proteins include meat, muscle, bone, and enzymes

18 Proteins (cont.) Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acids Amino acids interact to give a protein its shape Can have up to 4 levels of structure (next slide) The structure also determines the function of the protein. Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function

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20 Nucleic Acids: Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information. Two types: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid) The monomers are called nucleotides which are composed of 1. Sugar 2. phosphate group 3. nitrogen base

21 Nucleic Acids:

22 Nucleic Acids DNA stores genetic information RNA builds proteins DNA RNA Examples: DNA is double-stranded, and RNA is single-stranded

23 What have you learned? The four classes of macromolecules important to life are _______, _______, _______, and ________. What molecules are the monomers for carbohydrates? What molecules are the monomers for proteins? Proteins are used for __________ or as ___________. What molecules are the monomers for Lipids? Name 2 other roles can lipids play in living things besides acting as energy storage molecules. What is the main function of nucleic acids in living things? Name the two types of nucleic acids. What molecules are the monomers for nucleic acids? What are the three parts of a nucleotide?

24 8/28/12 Warm-up 1. What is the monomer of proteins? 2. What is the name of the bond that binds amino acids? 3. What is the other name for proteins (other polymer name)? What is the monomer of nucleic acids?


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