Presentation on theme: "Graphics Graphics will help you achieve: conciseness – large amounts of information in a small space clarity – clarify complex information Trends in line."— Presentation transcript:
Graphics Graphics will help you achieve: conciseness – large amounts of information in a small space clarity – clarify complex information Trends in line graphs Comparisons between like components in bar graphs Percentages in pie charts Facts and figures in tables cosmetic appeal – breaks up words on a page
Criteria for Effective Graphics Are integrated with the text. Graphic explains text or vice versa Are appropriately located. Immediately following the text referring to the graphic Add to the material explained in the text. Without being redundant Communicate important information that could not be obtained easily in text.
Criteria for Effective Graphics Do not contain details that detract from rather than enhance the information. Are an effective size. Are neatly printed to be readable. Are correctly labeled. Sustain the style common to other figures or tables in the text. Are well conceived and carefully executed.
1996 Monthly Rainfall versus Average Rainfall (All Figures in Inches) MONTH AVERAGE 1966 RAINFALL MONTH AVERAGE 1966 RAINFALL January1.502.00 February1.502.50 March1.002.50 April1.002.50 May0.501.50 June0.000.50 Types of Graphics: Tables Provide an introductory sentence prefacing the table. Eliminate needless repetition of words. Show comparisons. Highlight content’s significant differences. Allow for easy future reference.
Types of Graphics: Tables 1996 Monthly Rainfall versus Average Rainfall (All Figures in Inches) MONTH 1996 RAINFALL AVERAGE RAINFALL MONTH 1996 RAINFALL AVERAGE RAINFALL January1.502.00 February1.502.50 March1.002.50 April1.002.50 May0.501.50 June0.000.50 July0.250.50 August0.000.25 September0.50 October0.50 November1.50 December2.001.50
Criteria for Effective Tables Number tables in order of presentation. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, etc. Title every table. Placed above the table. In your writing, refer to table by its number, not its title. Table 1 shows... Present the table as soon as possible after you’ve mentioned it in your text. Place table on same page as appropriate text.
Criteria for Effective Tables Don’t present the table until you’ve mentioned it. Use an introductory sentence or two to lead into the table. Explain the table’s significance. Thus the rainfall in both March and April exceeded the actual rainfall by 1.50 inches, showing how dry the spring was.
Criteria for Effective Tables Write headings for each column. Choose terms that summarize information in columns. Abbreviate terms to accommodate column size. Be sure audience understands terminology. Center tables between right and left margins. Separate columns with ample white space, vertical lines, or dashes.
Criteria for Effective Tables Show omitted information by printing 2- 3 periods or hyphens in empty columns. Be consistent when using numbers. 3-1/4 and 3-3/4 or 3.25 and 3.75 If using decimals, write whole numbers as 9.00 for nine.
Criteria for Effective Tables If table takes more than one page, on the second page write (Continued) in parentheses after the table number and title. 1996 Monthly Rainfall versus Average Rainfall (All Figures in Inches) MONTH 1996 RAINFALL AVERAGE RAINFALL MONTH 1996 RAINFALL AVERAGE RAINFALL January1.502.00 February1.502.50 March1.002.50 April1.002.50 TABLE 1: MONTHLY RAINFALL (Continued)
Using Figures Bar charts Pie charts Line charts Flowcharts Organizational charts Photographs Icons Line drawings Figures highlight and supplement important points. Figures include:
Criteria for Effective Figures Number figures in order of presentation. Title each figure. Preface each figure with introductory statement. Don’t use figure until you’ve mentioned it in text. Present figure as soon as possible after mentioning it. Explain figure’s significance.
Criteria for Effective Figures Label the figure’s components. When necessary, provide a legend or key at the bottom to explain information. If you abbreviate any labels, define these in a footnote. Place an * after the term and at the bottom of the figure explain the terminology. Note the source of the information at the bottom of the figure.
Criteria for Effective Tables Frame the figure. Center it on the page or window it in a box. Size figures appropriately. Try the super comic book look (figures drawn in cartoon-like characters to highlight parts of the graphic and to interest readers.
Bar Charts Bars are scaled to reveal quantities and comparative values. May use vertical bars or horizontal bars.
Pie Charts Illustrate portions of a whole. Circle = 100% Begin spacing wedges at the 12 o’clock position. Use shading/color for emphasis. Use horizontal writing to label wedges OR provide a key. Provide percentages within wedges when possible.
Line Charts Reveal relationships between sets of figures. Line charts of more than one line are useful in showing comparisons between two sets of values.
Flowcharts Shows chronological sequence of activities Good for writing technical instructions Ovals = starts & stops Rectangles = steps Diamonds = decisions Begin End
Icons Visual representations of a capability, a danger, a direction, etc. Keep it simple. Create a realistic image. Make it recognizable. Avoid cultural and gender stereotyping. Strive for universality.
Line Drawings Use line drawings to show important parts of a mechanism or to enhance your text cosmetically. Maintain correct proportions in relation to each part of the object. If drawings illustrate steps in a process, place them in left-to-right or top-to-bottom order. Label the components of the object. Use letters or numbers to refer to numerous parts and provide a key. Use exploded views or cutaways to highlight parts.
For further assistance: Use any of the following programs to make tables and graphs. Microsoft Word Excel Power Point Word also can assist with indexes, tables of content, and tables of figures Insert > Indexes and Tables