Presentation on theme: "1 Designing Visuals Tables to organize lists of data Tables to organize lists of data Graphs / Charts to show relationships Graphs / Charts to show relationships."— Presentation transcript:
1 Designing Visuals Tables to organize lists of data Tables to organize lists of data Graphs / Charts to show relationships Graphs / Charts to show relationships Illustrations to show product or flow Illustrations to show product or flow The meshing of words with images
2 Tables Present detailed facts in a concise, readable form Avoid needless repetition of words Help reader find specific facts quickly Discuss table in text Time (hour) midnight 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 noon 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 Normal (mg/dl*) 100.3 93.6 88.2 100.5 138.6 102.4 93.8 132.3 103.8 93.6 127.8 109.2 Diabetic (mg/dl) 175.8 165.7 159.4 72.1 271.0 224.6 161.8 242.7 219.4 152.6 227.1 221.3 Table 1. Blood glucose levels [Carlson, 1982]. * decaliters/milligram
3 To create effective tables: Number them in order of presentation (Table 1, Table 2, etc.). Title all tables (Table 1: Comparison of Annual Wages). Place tables soon after mentioned in text. Do not insert table before mentioned in text. Use introductory lead-ins to tables. Provide follow-up explanations to tables, explaining the significance. Provide headings for all columns.
4 To create effective tables: Abbreviate terms to size columns appropriately. Do not crowd tables on a page. Separate columns with ample white space for easy readability. Show omissions with ellipses (...) or hyphens/ dashes ( - - - ) Use numbers consistently (either ½ or.5) Write “cont.” if a table spans more than one page.
9 Bar Graphs: Compare Items Compare related items Illustrate changes in data over time Show segments as parts of wholes May be vertical, horizontal, grouped, or segmented bars Avoid showing too much information (produces clutter and confusion) Length of bars should be proportional Dollars or percents should start at zero. Figure 1. Comparison of 2005 Rainfall to Average
10 Pie Chart: Visualize a whole unit and the proportion of its components Use four to eight segments for best results Group small portions into one wedge called “Other.” Distinguish wedges with color, shading, or crosshatching. Keep all labels horizontal. Strongly Agree 18% Agree 13% No Opinion 3% Strongly Disagree 38% Disagree 28%
11 Flow charts Display a process or procedure Use standard symbols
12 To create effective figures: Number the figures in order of presentation (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Title each figure (Figure 1: Percentages of Work Performed). Preface each figure with an introductory lead-in. Do not use a figure until mentioned in the text. Present the figure as soon as mentioned. Explain the figure’s importance. Label the figure’s components (x- and y-axes, for example). Provide a legend when necessary. Define any abbreviations. Cite sources of information as needed. Do not crowd figures on a page. Size the figures appropriately for readability.
13 Graphic Illustrations Photograph, drawing, or diagram to enhance comprehension Introduce and explain the illustration in the text Make sure your text is consistent with your illustration
14 Photographs provide realism Figure 2. Space Shuttle Challenger, from about 59 seconds to 60 seconds into launch (January 28, 1986). On the right rocket, flame first becomes visible and then impinges on tank. 59 seconds 59.5 seconds 60 seconds
15 Drawings provide control over detail Used to describe a mechanism
16 Diagrams provide ability to show flow of variable through a system or a process Figure 8. Schematic of test stand for evaluating components of an air conditioner design.
17 When you design an illustration…. Determine the events and objects in the process Determine the relationship between each event or object Create a means to represent the events and relationships (geometric shapes, sketches, arrows, etc.) Draw the diagram Write text that introduces the process and explains the stages of the process. Make sure the text matches the diagram.
18 Avoid illustrations that are too complex for the text Figure 5. Schematic of thermal storage system. RECEIVER FLASH TANK HP HTR DEAR- ATOR HOT WELL TSSGTSSG TURBINE TSU DSPH TSH FT The thermal storage system stores heat in a huge, steel- walled tank. Steam from the solar receiver passes through heat exchangers to heat the thermal oil, which is pumped into the tank. The tank then provides energy to run a steam generator to produce electricity. A schematic of this system is shown in Figure 5.
19 The precision of the illustrations should reflect the precision of the text The thermal storage system, shown in Figure 6, stores heat in a huge, steel-walled tank. Steam from the solar receiver heats a thermal oil, which is pumped into the tank. The tank then provides energy to run a steam generator to produce electricity. Figure 6. Schematic of thermal storage system for the solar power plant. steam generator 650°F 580°F 425°F 435°F solar receiver 575°F 425°F 530°F 250°F Thermal Tank Heat Exchanger Heat Exchanger
20 Inconsistencies between text and images disrupt flow The testing hardware of the rocket shown in Figure 8 has five main components: camera, digitizer, computer, I/O interface, and mechanical interface. Commands are generated by the computer, then passed through the I/O interface to the mechanized interface where the keyboard of the ICU is operated. The display of the ICU is read with a television camera and then digitized. This information is then manipulated by the computer to direct the next command. PRINTER CONTROL TERMINAL COMPUTER DIGITIZER CAMERA ELECTRO- MECHANICAL INTERFACE ROCKET Figure 8. Testing hardware.
21 Make sure your text is consistent with the diagram Our system for testing the launch controls of the rocket consists of four main parts: computer, electro-mechanical interface, camera, and digitizer. In this system (shown in Figure 9), the computer generates test commands to the rocket through the electro- mechanical interface. The test results are read with a television camera, and then digitized. The computer receives the information from the digitizer, and then directs the next test command. Figure 9. System to test launch controls for rocket. Camera Digitizer Computer Electro- Mechanical Interface 1 2 3 4 Rocket
22 Student Sample -- Photograph Micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS)
25 The Car Umbrella is a light-weight, new-age protective cover for any car, truck or SUV. The fitted, foldable protective cover rolls up with a push of a button into a galvanized steel canister. The Car Umbrella, which attaches to the rear bumper, can be easily released and wound in and out of the canister via remote control. (See Figure 3) Illustration – Show an Item in Use When you push a button, the car cover is rolled in or out of the canister. Figure 3. The Car Cover outside of the canister.