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Chapter 2. STRUCTURE n The arrangement of information (organization) and the techniques used to highlight information (page design)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2. STRUCTURE n The arrangement of information (organization) and the techniques used to highlight information (page design)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2

2 STRUCTURE n The arrangement of information (organization) and the techniques used to highlight information (page design)

3 We will learn the basics of organization n ABC format n page design

4 Organization

5 THE ONE CARDINAL RULE FOR TECHNICAL WRITING Write for your reader, not for yourself!

6 Write different parts for different readers n Readers do the following: u Quick scan F Read summaries, conclusions, recommendations, charts u Focused search F Look at headings and subheadings to find what they need u Short follow-ups F Return for important information Structure Rule #1Structure Rule #1

7 Emphasize beginnings and endings n Place important info where impatient readers want it—at the beginning and end n Look at figure 2-1 on page 25. n Where should this classic question be answered? “So what does this document mean to me? Structure Rule #2Structure Rule #2

8 Repeat key points n Especially in long documents u For example, key recommendations may be found in several places in a long report F Cover letter F Executive summary F Conclusion Structure Rule #3Structure Rule #3

9 ABC Format n Abstract-Beginning n Body-Middle n Conclusion-Ending

10 What Is the ABSTRACT? n introduces and summarizes u It may tell F why you are writing F what work you did F what main points are that decision- makers want to know F what main sections follow

11 What Is the BODY? Gives supporting details u It may tell F what led up to the project F how you gathered the information F where you got the information the field the lab the office

12 In the Body n use lead-ins at the beginning of sections n include listings n use graphics n separate facts from opinions

13 What is the CONCLUSION? n It provides a wrap-up u It may tell F conclusions and recommendations F what happens next F what single point you want to leave with the reader F what you can do to build goodwill/enhance your relationship with the reader

14 Page Design n Make your document easy to read with the following 4 rules

15 Design Rule #1 n Use white space liberally u Frame text with 1” to 1.5” margins u Experiment with double columns u Skip lines between paragraphs in single-spaced text u Use ragged right margins in short documents u Use slightly more space above headings than below them See figure 2-4 on page 33

16 Design Rule #2 n Use headings and subheadings often u Use your outline to create headings and subheadings u Use words in your headings that reflect content F Be careful--if headings are too general, they don’t help F Background of Successful Fund Drive is better than Background u Establish a clear visual ranking of headings

17 Design Rule #3 n Use lists frequently u Keep lists short (3-9 items) u Use bullets and numbers u Punctuate, space, and capitalize lists properly u Use proper lead-ins and parallel structure

18 Design Rule #4 n Use fonts effectively u Use serif fonts for regular text  Example: Bookman - serif u Consider using a sans serif font for headings F Example: Arial - sans serif u Avoid too many font variations in a document

19 Chapter 4 n Graphics

20 Definition Any nontextual portion of documents or speeches

21 Graphics can be used 1. to designate a field u He wanted to find a job in the graphics field. u She was talented in graphics. 2. to name graphical items u I put a graphic on the first page of my report.

22 Reasons for Using Graphics n simplify ideas n reinforce ideas n create interest n appeal to universal understanding of visual media

23 General Guidelines 1. Refer to all graphics in the text 2. Put graphics close to the text where it is mentioned 3. Position graphics vertically if possible. (People don’t like to turn the document.) 4. Avoid clutter 5. Provide titles, keys and source data

24 The Term Illustrations n means the same as graphics, visual aids n keep them simple n label them accurately n be creative

25 Tables n illustrations that place numbers or words in columns or rows or both n use for explaining complex data 12 34

26 Figures n All graphics other than tables

27 Bar Charts n use to show comparisons

28 Pie Charts use to show money and %

29 Line Charts use to show trends

30 Technical Drawings n use to show detail u Produced with CAD programs F Exterior view (surface) F Cross-section view (slice) F Exploded view (shows relationships between parts by looking deeply inside) F Cutaway view (shows inner workings by removing exterior)

31 When Is the Test on This? Wednesday 10

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