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UNIT 2 – THE MIDDLE AGES Chapter 13 – European Middle Ages Chapter 14 – the Formation of Western Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 2 – THE MIDDLE AGES Chapter 13 – European Middle Ages Chapter 14 – the Formation of Western Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 2 – THE MIDDLE AGES Chapter 13 – European Middle Ages Chapter 14 – the Formation of Western Europe

2  CORE OBJECTIVE: Describe the political structures and systems that changed Europe during the Middle Ages and the Formation of Western Europe  Objective 2.1: Describe the impact of Charlemagne’s Empire  Objective 2.2: Summarize the impact of feudalism & the code of chivalry  Objective 2.3: Describe the Christian Church’s structure and influence on Europe  THEME: Europe will become fragmented during its decline after the fall of Rome and new cultures will emerge.

3 European Middle Ages, 500–1200 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms Feudalism in Europe The Age of Chivalry The Power of the Church CHAPTER 13

4 CHAPTER 13 SECTION 1 Many Germanic kingdoms that succeeded the Roman Empire are reunited under Charlemagne’s empire.

5  Effects of Constant Invasions and Warfare  Germanic invaders overrun western Roman Empire in 400s  Fighting disrupts trade and government; people abandon cities  The Middle Ages — period from 500 to 1500  describes European decline after the fall of Rome in 476  The Decline of Learning  As cities are abandoned, level of learning declines  Knowledge of Greek language and culture is almost completely lost  Loss of a Common Language: Introduction of German language changes Latin; dialects develop

6  Years of Upheaval Between 400 and 600  Germanic kingdoms replace Roman provinces  Continual wars change borders between kingdoms  The Church provides order and security  The Concept of Government Changes  Germans held together by family ties and loyalty, not government  Small communities are governed by unwritten rules and traditions  Germanic warriors pledge loyalty to their chief; live in lord’s hall

7  Germanic people called Franks hold power in Roman province of Gaul  Clovis unites Franks into one kingdom by 511  He also converts to Christianity in 496  Leads warriors against other Germanic armies  Unites Franks into one kingdom with Church’s help

8  History Channel Video  franks---clovis-part-2 franks---clovis-part-2

9  Frankish rulers convert Germanic peoples to Christianity  Missionaries travel to convert Germanic and Celtic groups  The Christian Church builds monasteries — where monks live to study Christianity  Italian monk, Benedict, writes rules that govern monastic life  His sister Scholastica adapts rules for nuns living in convents  Monks establish schools, preserve learning through libraries

10  The Pope  Head of the Catholic Church  Peter (d 67 AD) is considered the first Pope  Pope’s over first 300 years are obscure & persecuted by Rome  They gain influence when Constantine recognizes Christianity and moves the capital away from Rome  First “Pope” is Damasus I in 366  With the collapse of Roman Empire – popes gain land & authority

11  Papal Power Expands Under Gregory I  In 590, Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great, becomes pope  Under Gregory, Church becomes secular — a political power  Pope’s palace becomes center of Roman government  Uses Church money to raise armies, care for poor, negotiate treaties  Establishes a Christendom—churchly kingdom fanning out from Rome

12  Europe’s Kingdoms  The Franks control largest and strongest of Europe’s many kingdoms  By 511, Frankish rule extends over what is now France  Charles Martel Emerges  Most powerful official in kingdom is major domo — mayor of the palace  In 719, the major domo is Charles Martel - becomes more powerful than king  Defeats Muslims from Spain at Tours in 732; becomes a Christian hero  Son, Pepin, begins Carolingian Dynasty — family that ruled 751–987 after helping the Pope fight the Lombards

13  From Pepin to Charlemagne  Pepin dies in 768, leaves kingdom to two sons; in 771 one son dies  Pepin’s second son, Charlemagne (Charles the Great), rules Frankish kingdom in 771  Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule  Charlemagne’s armies reunite western Europe, spread Christianity  In 800, Charlemagne travels to Rome to protect Pope Leo III  Pope crowns Charlemagne emperor in 800; builds largest empire since Rome  SIGNIFICANCE: Germanic power, Church, heritage of Roman Empire now joined together

14  Charlemagne limits nobles’ power by governing through royal agents to check on his landholders (counts)  Encourages learning and orders monasteries to open schools

15  Charlemagne’s Heirs  Charlemagne dies in 814; his son, Louis the Pious, rules poorly  Louis’s three grandsons fight for control of empire  In 843 they divide empire into three kingdoms by signing the Treaty of Verdun

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