2 Setting the StageMAIN IDEA:EMPIRE BUILDINGMany Germanic kingdoms that came after the Roman Empire were reunited under Charlemagne’s empireWHY ITMATTERS NOWCharlemagne spread Christian civilization through Northern Europe, where it had a permanent impact
3 Invasions of Western Europe 5th century: Germanic invaders overran the western half of the Roman empireRepeated invasions caused changes such as:Disruption of tradeDownfall of citiesPopulation shiftsDecline of learningLoss of a common language*These changes altered the economy, government, and culture of Western Europe!*
4 Germanic Kingdoms Emerge : Major upheaval; Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provincesBorders changed constantly with each battle’s victoryConcept of government changes: emphasis on personal loyalties (unwritten rules & traditions)Germanic stress on personal ties made it IMPOSSIBLE to establish orderly government for large territories
6 Clovis Rules the Franks The Franks, a Germanic tribe, hold power former Roman province of GaulLeader, Clovis, converts to Christianity to get divine help with battle victoriesChurch in Rome welcome’s Clovis’ conversion and supports his military campaigns against other Germanic peoples511: Clovis has united the Franks into one kingdom*This strategic alliance between Frankish kingdom & the Church was the start of a powerful partnership!
7 Spread of Christianity Church as an institution survived the fall of the Roman Empire; provided security in times of political chaosChurch became secular (worldly) and involved in politicsPolitics helped spread Christianity; Church & Frankish rulers help many people convertMissionaries risked their lives to travel & spread Christian beliefs
8 Christianity, continued Church built religious communities called monasteriesChristian men called monks gave up their private possessions and devoted their lives to serving God by hard work, prayer, and studyWomen who followed this way of life were called nuns and lived in conventsMonks and nuns opened schools, maintained libraries, copied books & helped the poor
9 Illuminated Manuscripts Monks devoted much time to making manuscripts, beautiful copies of religious writings, decorated with ornate letters and brilliant picturesThis was a way of keeping learning alive in a time when learning wasn’t important
10 Charles Martel Emerges Major domo – “mayor of the palace”, an official that has more power than the king719: Charles Martel was major domo of the Frankish kingdom united by ClovisExtended the Frankish kingdom to the north, south, and eastBattle of Tours, 732: defeated Muslim raiders (extremely important for Christian Europeans)Martel passed power to his son, Pepin the Short (wanted to be king)Pepin cooperated with the pope; pope anointed Pepin “king by the grace of God”Carolingian Dynasty: ruling family of the Franks
11 Charlemagne Becomes Emperor 768: Pepin the Short passes strong kingdom to sonsCharles, “Charlemagne” (Charles the Great) rules kingdomBuilt an empire greater than any known since ancient Rome!!!Fought Muslims in Spain, other Germanic tribes, and conquered new lands to the south and eastSpread Christianity and reunited Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire
12 What do the sword & cross symbolize in this painting of Charlemagne? Just a Question…What do the sword & cross symbolize in this painting of Charlemagne?
14 Charlemagne’s Excellent Reign Charlemagne strengthened his power by limiting the power of the noblesSent out royal agents to ensure counts (powerful landholders) were governing their counties justlyRegularly visited every part of his kingdomEncouraged learning!Surrounded himself with scholarsOpened a palace school for upper class childrenOrdered monasteries to open schools to train future monks & priests
15 Fall of the Carolingian Dynasty 814: Charlemagne on his deathbed; crowns son Louis the Pious emperorLouis the Pious was very religious but an ineffective rulerHe left the kingdom to his three sons, who fought each other for power843: the brothers signed the Treaty of Verdun, splitting the empire into three kingdomsCentral authority broke down & the last Carolingian kings lost powerLack of strong rulers would lead to a new system of governing and landholding… FEUDALISM