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Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms

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1 Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
Chapter 13, Section 1

2 Setting the Stage MAIN IDEA: EMPIRE BUILDING Many Germanic kingdoms that came after the Roman Empire were reunited under Charlemagne’s empire WHY IT MATTERS NOW Charlemagne spread Christian civilization through Northern Europe, where it had a permanent impact

3 Invasions of Western Europe
5th century: Germanic invaders overran the western half of the Roman empire Repeated invasions caused changes such as: Disruption of trade Downfall of cities Population shifts Decline of learning Loss of a common language *These changes altered the economy, government, and culture of Western Europe!*

4 Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
: Major upheaval; Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces Borders changed constantly with each battle’s victory Concept of government changes: emphasis on personal loyalties (unwritten rules & traditions) Germanic stress on personal ties made it IMPOSSIBLE to establish orderly government for large territories

5 Europe in the 6th Century

6 Clovis Rules the Franks
The Franks, a Germanic tribe, hold power former Roman province of Gaul Leader, Clovis, converts to Christianity to get divine help with battle victories Church in Rome welcome’s Clovis’ conversion and supports his military campaigns against other Germanic peoples 511: Clovis has united the Franks into one kingdom *This strategic alliance between Frankish kingdom & the Church was the start of a powerful partnership!

7 Spread of Christianity
Church as an institution survived the fall of the Roman Empire; provided security in times of political chaos Church became secular (worldly) and involved in politics Politics helped spread Christianity; Church & Frankish rulers help many people convert Missionaries risked their lives to travel & spread Christian beliefs

8 Christianity, continued
Church built religious communities called monasteries Christian men called monks gave up their private possessions and devoted their lives to serving God by hard work, prayer, and study Women who followed this way of life were called nuns and lived in convents Monks and nuns opened schools, maintained libraries, copied books & helped the poor

9 Illuminated Manuscripts
Monks devoted much time to making manuscripts, beautiful copies of religious writings, decorated with ornate letters and brilliant pictures This was a way of keeping learning alive in a time when learning wasn’t important

10 Charles Martel Emerges
Major domo – “mayor of the palace”, an official that has more power than the king 719: Charles Martel was major domo of the Frankish kingdom united by Clovis Extended the Frankish kingdom to the north, south, and east Battle of Tours, 732: defeated Muslim raiders (extremely important for Christian Europeans) Martel passed power to his son, Pepin the Short (wanted to be king) Pepin cooperated with the pope; pope anointed Pepin “king by the grace of God” Carolingian Dynasty: ruling family of the Franks

11 Charlemagne Becomes Emperor
768: Pepin the Short passes strong kingdom to sons Charles, “Charlemagne” (Charles the Great) rules kingdom Built an empire greater than any known since ancient Rome!!! Fought Muslims in Spain, other Germanic tribes, and conquered new lands to the south and east Spread Christianity and reunited Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire

12 What do the sword & cross symbolize in this painting of Charlemagne?
Just a Question… What do the sword & cross symbolize in this painting of Charlemagne?

13 Charlemagne’s Empire: 768-843

14 Charlemagne’s Excellent Reign
Charlemagne strengthened his power by limiting the power of the nobles Sent out royal agents to ensure counts (powerful landholders) were governing their counties justly Regularly visited every part of his kingdom Encouraged learning! Surrounded himself with scholars Opened a palace school for upper class children Ordered monasteries to open schools to train future monks & priests

15 Fall of the Carolingian Dynasty
814: Charlemagne on his deathbed; crowns son Louis the Pious emperor Louis the Pious was very religious but an ineffective ruler He left the kingdom to his three sons, who fought each other for power 843: the brothers signed the Treaty of Verdun, splitting the empire into three kingdoms Central authority broke down & the last Carolingian kings lost power Lack of strong rulers would lead to a new system of governing and landholding… FEUDALISM

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