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Germanic Kingdoms Unite Under - Charlemagne Medieval Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "Germanic Kingdoms Unite Under - Charlemagne Medieval Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Germanic Kingdoms Unite Under - Charlemagne Medieval Europe

2 Middle Ages  Also known as the Medieval Period  Period from 500 to 1500.  New institutions emerge to replace the Roman Empire.

3 Invasions Trigger Changes in Western Europe

4 Disruption of Trade  Merchants faced invasions form land and sea.  Businesses collapse.  European cities trade destroyed.  Money becomes scarce.

5 Downfall of Cities  Cities are abandoned as centers of trade.  Cities collapse in size

6 Population Shifts  Nobles retreat to rural areas.  No leadership in cities.  City dwellers move to the countryside and grow their own food.  European population becomes rural.

7 Decline of Learning  Germanic invaders were illiterate, had no written language.  Few people other than priests were literate.  Knowledge of Greek language was almost lost.

8 Loss of a Common Language  As Germans mix with Romans, Latin changes.  By 800 ’ s, French, Spanish and other languages evolved from Latin.

9 Germanic Kingdoms Emerge  From 400-600 Germanic kingdoms replace Roman provinces.  The Church survives the change and provides stability.

10 Concept of Government Changes  Romans were loyal to the government and the law  German society was held together by personal loyalties and family ties.  Romans lived in large cities, Germans lived in small towns.

11 Concept of Government Changes  Germanic warriors were led by a chief who gave them food, weapons and treasure. They were fiercely loyal to him and considered it a disgrace to outlive him in battle.  They felt no obligation to a king they didn ’ t know.  The emphasis on personal loyalty made it impossible to establish orderly government over a large area.

12 The Franks Under Clovis  Franks held power in Gaul (Modern France).  Their king, Clovis would eventually bring Christianity to this region.  Clovis was converted to Christianity by his wife, Clothilde.  In 496, Clovis asked the Christian God to give him victory in battle.  After the victory, Clovis and 3000 of his men were baptized.

13 Concept of Government Changes  The Church in Rome supported Clovis.  By 511, Clovis had united the Franks, making the kingdom the largest and strongest in the area

14 Germanic Peoples Adopt Christianity  By 600, the Church had converted many Germanic people.  Missionaries also spread Christianity.  In southern Europe, fear of attacks by Muslims also motivated people to become Christians.

15 Monasteries & Convents  Became Europe ’ s best-educated communities.  Monks lived in Monasteries  Nuns lived in Convents  Opened schools, maintained libraries, copied books (preserved Roman knowledge)

16  Who were the most important people in Germanic tribes?  How does society change after the fall of Rome?  Why is Clovis important?

17 Clovis ’ Descendants  By 700, the major domo, or mayor of the palace had become the most powerful person in the kingdom.  Officially in charge of the royal household and estates.  Unofficially commanded armies and made policy. In effect, the major domo ruled the kingdom.

18 Charles Martel  Nicknamed “ The Hammer ”.  As major domo, he held more power than the king.

19 Charles Martel  Extended Frank rule to the north, south and east.  Defeated a Spanish Muslim raiding party at the Battle of Tours in 732.

20 Battle of Tours - 732  Halted the Muslim conquest of Europe.  Won by Charles Martel.  The battle made Martel a Christian hero.

21 Pepin the Short  Son of Charles Martel.  Inherited position of major domo upon the death of his father.  Wanted to become king.  Cooperated with the Pope, helped when Lombards threatened Rome.  Pope appointed Pepin “ king by the grace of God ”

22 Carolingian Dynasty  Started by Pepin the Short.  Lasted from 751 to 987.

23 Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule  Pepin the Short died in 768.  Left the kingdom to his sons, Carloman and Charles.  Carloman died in 771.  Charles seized control of the entire kingdom.  Charles is known as Charlemagne, or Charles the Great.

24 Charlemagne  Built a larger empire than any since Rome.  Each summer he fought the enemies that surrounded the kingdom.  Defeated Muslims in Spain.  Fought other Germanic tribes.  Conquered new lands in the south and east.  Greatly spread Christianity.




28 Charlemagne  United western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire.  By 800, his empire exceed the Byzantine Empire.  2/3 of Italy.  All of France.  Part of Spain.  All of German Saxony.

29 Holy Roman Empire  Began in 800 with Charlemagne ’ s coronation.


31 Pope Leo III  Crowned Charlemagne emperor after he traveled to Rome to defeat a mob that had attacked the Pope.  At the coronation, a European king also became “ Roman Emperor ”.  The power of the Church and Germanic power were combined.


33 Charlemagne ’ s Government  Limited the authority of the nobles.  Sent out agents to make sure Counts (powerful landowners) governed justly.  Charlemagne visited every part of his kingdom regularly.  He judged cases, settled disputes, rewarded the faithful.  Kept a close watch on his large estates, the source of his income.

34 Cultural Revival  Charlemagne encouraged learning.  Surrounded himself with scholars.  Opened a palace school for his children and others at court.  Opened monastic schools to train monks and priests.  Expanded monastic libraries.

35 Charlemagne ’ s Weak Heirs  Charlemagne crowns his son Louis the Pious in 814, one year before his death.  Louis was not a good leader.  Louis ’ s sons, Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German, fought each other for control after their father ’ s death.

36 Treaty of Verdun  Ended the civil war in 843.  Divided Charlemagne ’ s Empire into three kingdoms.  Carolingian kings lost power.  Led to a new system of governing and landholding.


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