Disruption of Trade Merchants faced invasions form land and sea. Businesses collapse. European cities trade destroyed. Money becomes scarce.
Downfall of Cities Cities are abandoned as centers of trade. Cities collapse in size
Population Shifts Nobles retreat to rural areas. No leadership in cities. City dwellers move to the countryside and grow their own food. European population becomes rural.
Decline of Learning Germanic invaders were illiterate, had no written language. Few people other than priests were literate. Knowledge of Greek language was almost lost.
Loss of a Common Language As Germans mix with Romans, Latin changes. By 800 ’ s, French, Spanish and other languages evolved from Latin.
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge From 400-600 Germanic kingdoms replace Roman provinces. The Church survives the change and provides stability.
Concept of Government Changes Romans were loyal to the government and the law German society was held together by personal loyalties and family ties. Romans lived in large cities, Germans lived in small towns.
Concept of Government Changes Germanic warriors were led by a chief who gave them food, weapons and treasure. They were fiercely loyal to him and considered it a disgrace to outlive him in battle. They felt no obligation to a king they didn ’ t know. The emphasis on personal loyalty made it impossible to establish orderly government over a large area.
The Franks Under Clovis Franks held power in Gaul (Modern France). Their king, Clovis would eventually bring Christianity to this region. Clovis was converted to Christianity by his wife, Clothilde. In 496, Clovis asked the Christian God to give him victory in battle. After the victory, Clovis and 3000 of his men were baptized.
Concept of Government Changes The Church in Rome supported Clovis. By 511, Clovis had united the Franks, making the kingdom the largest and strongest in the area
Germanic Peoples Adopt Christianity By 600, the Church had converted many Germanic people. Missionaries also spread Christianity. In southern Europe, fear of attacks by Muslims also motivated people to become Christians.
Monasteries & Convents Became Europe ’ s best-educated communities. Monks lived in Monasteries Nuns lived in Convents Opened schools, maintained libraries, copied books (preserved Roman knowledge)
Who were the most important people in Germanic tribes? How does society change after the fall of Rome? Why is Clovis important?
Clovis ’ Descendants By 700, the major domo, or mayor of the palace had become the most powerful person in the kingdom. Officially in charge of the royal household and estates. Unofficially commanded armies and made policy. In effect, the major domo ruled the kingdom.
Charles Martel Nicknamed “ The Hammer ”. As major domo, he held more power than the king.
Charles Martel Extended Frank rule to the north, south and east. Defeated a Spanish Muslim raiding party at the Battle of Tours in 732.
Battle of Tours - 732 Halted the Muslim conquest of Europe. Won by Charles Martel. The battle made Martel a Christian hero.
Pepin the Short Son of Charles Martel. Inherited position of major domo upon the death of his father. Wanted to become king. Cooperated with the Pope, helped when Lombards threatened Rome. Pope appointed Pepin “ king by the grace of God ”
Carolingian Dynasty Started by Pepin the Short. Lasted from 751 to 987.
Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule Pepin the Short died in 768. Left the kingdom to his sons, Carloman and Charles. Carloman died in 771. Charles seized control of the entire kingdom. Charles is known as Charlemagne, or Charles the Great.
Charlemagne Built a larger empire than any since Rome. Each summer he fought the enemies that surrounded the kingdom. Defeated Muslims in Spain. Fought other Germanic tribes. Conquered new lands in the south and east. Greatly spread Christianity.
Charlemagne United western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. By 800, his empire exceed the Byzantine Empire. 2/3 of Italy. All of France. Part of Spain. All of German Saxony.
Holy Roman Empire Began in 800 with Charlemagne ’ s coronation.
Pope Leo III Crowned Charlemagne emperor after he traveled to Rome to defeat a mob that had attacked the Pope. At the coronation, a European king also became “ Roman Emperor ”. The power of the Church and Germanic power were combined.
Charlemagne ’ s Government Limited the authority of the nobles. Sent out agents to make sure Counts (powerful landowners) governed justly. Charlemagne visited every part of his kingdom regularly. He judged cases, settled disputes, rewarded the faithful. Kept a close watch on his large estates, the source of his income.
Cultural Revival Charlemagne encouraged learning. Surrounded himself with scholars. Opened a palace school for his children and others at court. Opened monastic schools to train monks and priests. Expanded monastic libraries.
Charlemagne ’ s Weak Heirs Charlemagne crowns his son Louis the Pious in 814, one year before his death. Louis was not a good leader. Louis ’ s sons, Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German, fought each other for control after their father ’ s death.
Treaty of Verdun Ended the civil war in 843. Divided Charlemagne ’ s Empire into three kingdoms. Carolingian kings lost power. Led to a new system of governing and landholding.