2 The end of the Roman Empire (476 AD); the end of classical antiquity The Middle Ages or medieval period (500 – 1500 AD)The Renaissance and the beginning of modern history
3 Roots of the Middle Ages The classical heritage of RomeThe beliefs of the Roman Catholic ChurchThe customs of various Germanic tribes
4 Invasions of Western Europe Repeated invasions and constant warfare in the western half of the Roman Empire led to major changes:Breakdown of tradeDownfall of cities; population becomes mostly ruralDecline of learningLoss of a common language; Latin no longer part of everyday speech; new languages evolved
5 Germanic Kingdoms Emerge 400 – 600 AD, small Germanic kingdoms replaced provinces of the Roman EmpireGovernment changed from the public government and written laws of Rome to the family ties and personal loyalties of Germanic societyNo orderly government for large territories
6 Clovis Rules the Franks Franks held power in what is present-day FranceLed by ClovisConverted to ChristianityUnited all Franks into one kingdom
8 Germans Adopt Christianity By 600, many Germanic people converted to ChristianityChurch built monasteries, religious communities where monks and nuns livedMonks opened schools, maintained libraries, and copied books, partially preserving the learning of Rome.Pope Gregory expanded power of the papacy (Pope’s office)Church became a secular (worldly) power involved in politics
9 Illuminated manuscripts, made by monks, were copies of religious writings decorated with ornate letters and brilliant pictures.
10 An Empire EvolvesEurope was made up many small kingdoms, of which the Franks were the largest and strongestCharles Martel led Franks in early 700s, expanded their territory and defeating Muslim raiders at the Battle of Tours in 732Became a Christian heroHis son began the Carolingian Dynasty which ruled until 987.
11 Charlemagne Becomes Emperor Martel’s grandson, Charlemagne, built the Frankish empire into the largest empire since RomeSpread ChristianityReunited western EuropePope made him “emperor”
14 Charlemagne Leads a Revival Charlemagne strengthened his power by limiting the power of noblesEncouraged education by ordering monasteries to open schools to train future monks and priestsAfter his death, Charlemagne’s sons divided the Empire into three kingdomsLed to breakdown of strong, central governmentResulted in a new system called feudalism