Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction Essential Questions:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reconstruction 1865-1877 Essential Questions: What were the main goals for Reconstruction?How did Lincoln’s assassination change the course of Reconstruction?What legislation (laws) changes impacted African-Americans during Reconstruction?How did legislation and racism limit freedoms for African-Americans following the Civil War?How was the economic class structure changed by the Civil War in the South?Video:
2 Main Goals of Reconstruction Rejoin all states into the UnionRebuild the SouthMajor Questions after Civil WarHow to re-build the South?How to bring Southern States back into U.S.?How to bring former slaves into U.S. as free men and women?
3 How to bring former Confederate States back into the United States? Should people who fought against U.S. be allowed back as citizens or punished?What should be done about southern state governments that fought the U.S.?
4 How to bring former slaves into U.S. as free men and women? How would freed men and women be treated in the Southern States?What do you think were some of the major challenges faced by former slaves?
5 Rejoin all states into Union: Lincoln’s Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) Pardon to all but highest ranking officialsWhen 10% of 1860 voters take loyalty oath & establish govt. then it would be let back inNo more slaveryThis is 1863, war still going on & Lincoln does this without Congress – Lincoln strong President1865 2nd Inaugural Address Lincoln describes planLincoln Assassinated
7 Lincoln assassinated 4/15/1865 6 days after end of Civil War while watching a playJohn Wilkes Booth: assassin, Southerner angry at LincolnVice-President Andrew Johnson became President
8 Rejoin all states: Johnson 10% Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) Johnson: southerner, so goes easier on southGrants special pardonsSouthern planter class back in control of state governmentsBlack Codes in southAngers Radical Republicans
9 Rejoin all states to Union: Radical Republican Plan (Congressional Reconstruction Believed south need be punished, concern of who going to leadWade-Davis BillSlavery abolished – note, this bill 1864 & before 13th Amendment50% rule: 50% of voters swear oath to unionNew State Constitutions written by non-confederateSouthern states governed by northern generals with troops
10 13th Amendment – frees slaves, makes slavery illegal What legislation (laws) changes impacted African-Americans during Reconstruction?13th Amendment – frees slaves, makes slavery illegal14th Amendment – guarantees citizenship to all born or naturalized within the U.S.state governments could not “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.”15th Amendment – gives voting rights to all malesAngers women cause excludes them from votingFreedman’s Bureau
11 Freedmen’s Bureau Lincoln starts March 1865 Assist freed slaves with food, housing, education, legal assistanceEx. of influence: Howard UniversityProblems:Carpetbaggers: northerner, abolitionist go south to help but some take advantageScalawags: southerners sympathetic to African Americans
12 40 Acres & a MuleDuring Reconstruction, ex-slaves were promised 40 acres of land and a mule.Unfortunately, the government never came through with their promise.During the riots in the 1960’s, people were overheard saying, “That’s for my 40 acres and a mule,” as they stole something from a store.Film maker Spike Lee’s company is called 40 Acres and a Mule.
13 Compromise of 1877 Ends Reconstruction Southern Democrats accept northern President and Federal troops leave south.Rutherford B. Hayes now PresidentSouthern conservatives back in power in southSlave owners back in power
14 Voting Restrictions: poll tax, literacy tests, grandfather clause How did legislation and racism limit freedoms for African-Americans following the Civil War?Black Codes: laws passed by Southern states to limit freedom of African Americans.Put in place during Johnson administrationKu Klux Klan: whites opposed to African Americans obtaining civil rights, esp. right to voteUsed violence and murderVoting Restrictions: poll tax, literacy tests, grandfather clauseJim Crow Laws
15 Jim Crow Laws- laws that forced segregation Segregation: the legal separation of people of color in public placesSeparate hotels, rail cars, schools, libraries, parks, bathroomsSit in separate parts of theaters and in restaurantsPlessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court rules segregation legalFair as long as “separate-but-equal” facilities provided
16 How was the economic class structure changed by the Civil War in the South? Civil War eliminates slavery and destroys economyWhites needed someone to work the land and African Americans needed to workSharecropping & Tenant Farming: blacks give crops, or cash for use of former masters landDebt: in either case African Americans become indebted to former mastersKept former slaves at lower economic statusSlavery by another name
17 Potential videos to use American Experience-The Second Civil War-Reconstruction (PBS)Stop at 3:00
18 Lincoln Assassinated: ReconstructionLincoln Assassinated:Essential Questions:What were the main goals for Reconstruction?How did Lincoln’s assassination change the course of Reconstruction?What legislation (laws) changes impacted African-Americans during Reconstruction?How did legislation and racism limit freedoms for African-Americans following the Civil War?How was the economic class structure changed by the Civil War in the South?Johnson Plan (presidential reconstruction):2 Major Goals of Reconstructions:1.2.Radical Republican Plan (Congressional Recon):Lincoln’s Plan (presidential reconstruction)
19 ReconstructionCompromise of 1877:Legislation Impacting African Ams. During Reconstruction:Jim Crow Laws:Freedmen's Bureau:40 Acres & A MuleHow was economic class structure changed by Civil War?