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Unit 6 Reconstruction Rebuilding of the South after the Civil War

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1 Unit 6 Reconstruction 1864-1877 Rebuilding of the South after the Civil War

2 Civil War → Reconstruction
Pres. Abraham Lincoln inaugurated for second term on March 4, 1865 General Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865

3 First Steps Toward Reunion
Wade-Davis Bill Required majority of white men in each southern state to swear loyalty to Union Denied right to vote or hold office anyone who had volunteered to fight for Confederacy Lincoln refused to sign the bill

4 First Steps Toward Reunion
10% Plan Southern state could form a new government after 10% of voters swore an oath of loyalty to the U.S. State’s new government Had to abolish slavery Then elected members to Congress

5 John Wilkes Booth Pres. Lincoln shot by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 while watching a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington, DC

6 Andrew Johnson – 17th President of U.S.
1 term: Republican Party 13th Amendment 14th Amendment

7 Reconstruction: 1864-1877 13th Amendment 14th Amendment Ended slavery
Banned slavery in U.S. 14th Amendment Made former slaves citizens Made discrimination illegal

8 Andrew Johnson – 17th President of U.S.
Midterm election of 1866 disaster for Pres. Johnson Radical Republicans win majorities in Congress Passed several acts over Johnson’s veto

9 Andrew Johnson – 17th President of U.S.
Radical Republicans 2 main goals: Break power of rich southern planters Ensure freed slaves right to vote

10 Andrew Johnson – 17th President of U.S.
Impeached by House of Representatives on Feb. 24, 1868 Senate found him not guilty One vote short of 2/3 majority

11 Ulysses S. Grant – 18th President of U.S.
2 terms: Republican Party 15th Amendment

12 Reconstruction: 1864-1877 15th Amendment
Gave former slaves right to vote (men only) The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

13 Reconstruction: 1864-1877 Carpetbaggers Scalawags Sharecroppers
Northerners who moved to the South to work for Reconstruction Scalawags White southerners who supported Reconstruction Sharecroppers Rent land to grow food & give owner share of crops Ku Klux Klan Secret organization White southerners use fear & violence to keep African Americans from voting or entering politics

14 Reconstruction: By 1872, most former Confederates were again allowed to vote By late 1870s, conservative whites had regained control of the South Northerners grew weary of trying to change the South Time to let Southerners run their own government again, even if African Americans lose rights gained Government of the Southern states was once again in the hands of the Southerners

15 End of Reconstruction Election of 1876
Samuel Tilden – Democratic candidate Won popular vote One electoral vote short of number needed to win election Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican candidate Promised to end Reconstruction Selected by Congress to be President

16 Rutherford B. Hayes – 19th President of U.S.
1 term: Republican Party Removed remaining Federal troops from the South

17 End of Reconstruction Southern white conservatives use violence to keep African Americans from voting Voting restrictions in Southern states Poll taxes Voters pay tax each time they vote Literacy tests Prove a voter could read & write Grandfather clauses Excused voters from poll taxes or literacy tests if voter’s father or grandfather had voted before 1867

18 End of Reconstruction Segregation became law of the South
Jim Crow laws Laws separating whites and blacks schools, restaurants, theaters, trains, streetcars, playgrounds, hospitals, cemeteries 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court said segregation was legal if facilities were equal

19 End of Reconstruction Laws passed during Reconstruction (such as 14th Amendment) became basis of civil rights movement almost 100 years later

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