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Brainstorm: What problems did the nation face after the Civil War?

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1 Brainstorm: What problems did the nation face after the Civil War?
Warm-Up Brainstorm: What problems did the nation face after the Civil War?

2 Reconstruction Radical Reconstruction (Congress) Andrew Johnson
The Reconstruction Era lasted from 3 Plans for Reconstruction Abraham Lincoln Andrew Johnson Radical Reconstruction (Congress)

3 Reconstruction What were the social, political and economic changes that occurred during the Reconstruction era?

4 Reconstruction Reading Questions
What was the purpose of Reconstruction? Based on the summary do you think it is better that the federal government has more power or the individual states? Do you think the nation truly made progress during the Reconstruction Era?

5 My plan is the best! Read the information about either Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, or Congress’s plans for Reconstruction. Present the plan to your assigned portion of the class. Convince your classmates why this plan is the best and most effective one to reconstruct the nation! Be prepared to answer any questions the country may have about the plan.

6 And the winner is… On your own, evaluate each plan. What are the pros and cons for each? Quickwrite: Which do you think would be most effective to help unify the nation and make the United States a world power? Explain your choice.

7 Group Activity Design your own Reconstruction Plan to rebuild the nation. Consider the social, political and economic factors that needed to be rebuilt.

8 13th Amendment: The Slaves Are Free - 1865
With the ending of the war, the slaves were now free. The 13th Amendment to the Constitution was passed. The 13th Amendment made slavery illegal forever in the United States.

9 The Freedmen’s Bureau - 1865
The Freedmen’s Bureau was established to help poor whites and former slaves in the South with basic social services. The Freedmen’s Bureau established schools in the South because laws against educating slaves during the Civil War meant that most ex-slaves did not know how to read and write.

10 40 Acres and Mule and Sharecropping
During Reconstruction, ex-slaves were promised 40 acres of land and a mule, unfortunately the government did not follow through on their promise and many ex-slaves ended up in a sharecropping situation. Sharecropping – “Landlord” gave them land and a house in exchange for sharing their crop – they were always indebted to the landlord During the riots in the 1960’s, people were overheard saying, “That’s for my 40 acres and a mule,” as they stole something from a store.

11 The Black Codes The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states that limited the new-found freedom of African Americans. Black Codes forced African Americans to work on farms or as servants. They also prevented African Americans from owning guns, holding public meetings, or renting property in cities.

12 Civil Rights Act of 1866 Declared all people born in the United States were citizens (except Native Americans) and were entitled to equal rights Led to the 14th Amendment which made this same belief part of the Constitution and not just a law

13 Ku Klux Klan Founded In 1866 a group of white southerners created the Ku Klux Klan. The KKK was a secret society opposed to African Americans obtaining civil rights, particularly the right to vote. The KKK used violence and intimidation to frighten blacks.


15 The 14th Amendment The 14th Amendment guaranteed citizenship to all people born or naturalized within the U.S. except for the Indians. It said that state governments could not “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.”

16 Radical Republicans The Black Codes angered many Republicans in Congress who felt the South was returning to its old ways. The Radical Republicans wanted the South to change more before they could be readmitted to the Union. They were angry at President Johnson for letting the South off so easy.

17 Reconstruction Act of 1867 Divided the South into five military districts, each run by an army commander. Members of the government before the war lost their vote. To re-enter the Union, new state Constitutions had to grant the right to vote to African-Americans and must ratify the 14th Amendment.


19 Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson - 1868
Impeachment is the process of charging a public official with a crime – he violated the Tenure of Office Act on purpose The House convicted him, but the Senate was ONE vote short, Republicans failed to convict Johnson of the crime The only other time a president has been impeached was Bill Clinton.

20 Election of Ulysses S. Grant - 1868
Republican Party was strong when Grant was elected President Under his Presidency both support for the Republican party and Reconstruction weakened Not a strong president – he brought corruption and economic depression into an already bad situation

21 15th Amendment The 15th Amendment gave African American men the right to vote. Women’s rights activists were angry because the amendment did not also grant women the right to vote.

22 Voting Rights Other laws were passed to keep blacks from voting.
One law said former slaves had to pay a tax to vote. It was called a poll tax. Another law was passed that said a person could only vote if their grandfather had voted. These laws were called the Grandfather Clause.

23 Carpetbaggers & Scalawags
Carpetbaggers – Northerners who moved South during this time period – also those seeking to enter politics – not a positive term Scalawags – White Southern Republicans who supported Reconstruction – thought of as “scoundrels or traitors” by other Southerners

24 Panic of 1873 Political corruption and financial scandals under President Grant caused banks to and the stock market to close which caused people to panic The panic led to an economic depression that was blamed on the Republicans

25 Civil Rights Act of 1875 Outlawed racial segregation in public areas
African-Americans were allowed to serve as jurors

26 Election of Rutherford B. Hayes - 1876
Very close election – Hayes had to be chosen through the Compromise of 1877 His election marks the end of the Reconstruction Era

27 Compromise of 1877 Compromise allowing Republican Rutherford B. Hayes to become President if the South received certain things: Federal troops were removed from the South Federal aid provided for the construction of railroads, and other construction/improvement projects Hayes would appoint a Democrat to his cabinet Democrats “promised” to respect African American civil and political rights

28 Segregation and Jim Crow Laws
Starting in 1881, blacks had to stay in separate hotels, sit in separate parts of theaters, ride in separate rail cars, and have separate schools, libraries, and parks. “Separate but Equal” Segregation - the legal separation of blacks and whites in public places Jim Crow Laws – the series of laws that forced segregation

29 Plessy v. Ferguson The Supreme Court ruled segregation was legal in Plessy v. Ferguson. They said that segregation was fair as long as “separate-but-equal” facilities were provided for African Americans. In practice, the African American facilities were usually “separate-and-unequal.” It would take until the 1965, 100 years after the Civil War ended, for Jim Crow laws to be outlawed and blacks to finally realize legal equality in America.

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