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Presentation on theme: "REconstruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 REconstruction

2 Lincoln’s Plan to Reunite the Nation
All property taken during the war (except for slaves) will be returned to Southerners Except for members of the Confederate government and high ranking military members, all Southerners are pardoned as long as they take an oath promising to support the union The states can rejoin the Union once 10% of their voters take the oath A promise to support the protection, freedom, and education of freed slaves The southern states will be allowed to send representatives to Congress

3 Lincoln’s Reconstruction
April 14, 1865 Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer Lincoln’s Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President

4 Andrew Johnson A Southern Democrat who disagreed with many of Lincoln’s ideas. Had his own plan for Reconstruction that did not please Republicans in Congress

5 Reconstruction Plans HA: Grading the Reconstruction Plans


7 Presidential Reconstruction
Even while Abraham Lincoln was President, the Republicans in Congress did not like his plan for Reconstruction In 1864 Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill (a.k.a. the Radical Republican plan). Required a majority of a state’s white male citizens to pledge loyalty to the Union before being readmitted to the Union. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill Why do you think the Wade-Davis Bill caused division among the Republican Party?


9 Presidential Reconstruction
After Lincoln’s assassination Andrew Johnson wanted to control Reconstruction Northerners were upset that Johnson’s plan was allowing former Confederates to take back power and the mistreatment of the freedmen Republicans in Congress decided to take control of Reconstruction How can Congress go against the President when making decisions?

10 Congressional Reconstruction
In 1866 Congress passed a bill to support the Freedmen’s Bureau Freedmen’s Bureau Activity They also passed the Civil Rights Act of – gave African Americans citizenship and guaranteed them the same legal rights as white Americans However, President Johnson vetoed both bills, which greatly angered Republicans in Congress Do you think Presidents should be allowed to veto laws? Why or why not?

11 Congressional Reconstruction
Congress went even further by passing the 14th Amendment – required states to grant citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States”. Why would Congress pass an amendment to the Constitution when Johnson had already vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866?


13 Republicans Take Over From Congress passed four reconstruction bills against Johnson’s veto Divided the south into 5 military controlled districts States had to ratify (pass) the 14th amendment before being readmitted to the Union States had to write new constitutions guaranteeing freedmen the right to vote Congress also passed the Tenure of Office Act – required the Senate’s permission for the removal of any appointed government official.


15 Johnson Impeached The Republicans knew that Johnson would violate the Tenure of Office Act. When he did they impeached Johnson What does it mean to be impeached? When the Senate voted Johnson escaped removal from office by 1 vote.

16 Republicans in Charge In 1868 Republican and Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant is elected President It was a close election and Grant owed his victory to over 500,000 votes from African-Americans In 1869 the 15th Amendment was passed – protected the voting rights of African-Americans. Why would Republicans want to protect the voting rights of African-Americans?

17 Republicans in Charge During this time Republicans controlled the governments in the South Scalawags- a derogatory term for white Southerners who supported the Republican governments Carpetbaggers- Northerners who came to the South to educate, make money, or work in government Should we use negative terms to describe these types of people?

18 Describe these 3 pictures and how they relate to “scalawags” and “carpetbaggers”


20 Republicans in Charge During Reconstruction 700 African-Americans served in state legislatures and 22 were elected to Congress School systems were put in place African-Americans were allowed to vote It was illegal for railroads, hotels, etc. to discriminate against African-Americans.

21 Freedom Former slaves were now able to:
search for long-lost relatives Own land Find jobs Live where they wanted Become educated Establish their own churches Play baseball In your opinion, were African- Americans better off during this time of Reconstruction than they were in the 1950’s?


23 Sharecropping SHEG: Sharecropping

24 The End of Reconstruction
Even though there were many positive changes for African-Americans there were still problems KKK and other violence Eventually many government leaders in the north became tired of dealing with Reconstruction An economic depression in 1873 took the focus of Congress away from Reconstruction Support for the Republican controlled state governments lessened which allowed for the “old South” to regain control

25 The Final Straw The Presidential Election of was too close to call In one of the most corrupt bargains ever, the Republican, Rutherford B. Hayes was named President. In return Republicans promised to withdraw federal troops from the South. What do you think happened once federal troops left the South?

26 SHEG: Reconstruction

27 The South Takes Back Power
After Reconstruction officially ends in 1876 governments in the South were again run by Southerners Southern legislatures began to pass Jim Crow Laws – laws that created and enforced segregation Laws ranged from requiring separate railroad cars for blacks and whites, separate schools, even separate bathrooms

28 Homer Plessy In Louisiana, Homer Plessy was arrested for sitting in a white only railcar His case made it to the Supreme Court In Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court ruled that “separate but equal” facilities did not violate the 14th Amendment This case allowed for legal discrimination for the next 60 years

29 Violence Against African-Americans
Throughout the entire nation (not just the South) blacks were discriminated against African-Americans could be arrested just for looking at white women Lynchings occurred throughout the country Between 1882 and 1892 nearly 900 African-Americans died by lynching African-Americans lost most of the gains they had made during Reconstruction

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