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Climate Regions of the World

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Presentation on theme: "Climate Regions of the World"— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Regions of the World
Text Book page #

2 The big idea What factors are used to classify climates? What are the six main climate regions?

3 Scientists classify climates according to two major factors:
Climate regions Scientists classify climates according to two major factors: Temperature Precipitation

4 There are six main climate regions:
Tropical rainy Dry Temperate marine Temperate continental Polar Highlands

5 World Climates

6 Tropical rainy climates
The tropics have two types of rainy climates: Tropical wet Tropical wet-and-dry

7 Tropical wet climates Are found in low-lying lands near the equator
Many days are rainy, often with afternoon thunderstorms Thunderstorms triggered by mid-day heating In many areas with a tropical-wet climate the trade winds bring moisture from the oceans

8 Tropical wet climates With year round heat and heavy rainfall, vegetation grows lush and green Dense rain forests grow in these climates In the United States, only the windward sides of Hawaiian islands have a tropical wet climate

9 Tropical wet-and-dry climates
Areas that have tropical wet-and-dry climates receive slightly less rain than tropical climates Have distinct dry and rainy seasons Instead of rainforests, tropical grasslands called savannas grow In the United States only the southern tip of Florida has a tropical wet-and-dry climate

10 Dry climates A climate is dry if the amount of precipitation that falls is less than the amount of water that could potentially evaporate It does NOT mean that it doesn’t ever rain…

11 Dry climates include arid and semiarid climates

12 Dry climates Dry regions often lie inland Far from the oceans that are the source of humid air masses

13 Arid climates Also known as deserts
On average, arid regions receive less than 25 cm of rain per year Only specializes plants and animals can survive Much of California’s southeast, including Death Valley and the Mojave Desert, has an arid climate

14 Semiarid climates Semiarid regions are usually located on the edges of deserts These semiarid area are called steppes May also be called a prairie or a grassland The Great Plains are the major steppe region of the United States Portions of southeastern California are considered semiarid

15 Temperate marine climates
There are three types of temperate marine climates: Marine west coast Mediterranean Humid subtropical

16 Temperate marine climates
Because of the moderating influence of oceans, all three temperate marine climates are humid and have mild winters

17 Marine west coast The coolest temperate marine climates are found on the west coasts of continents north of 40 degrees north latitude and south of 40 degrees south latitude Humid ocean air brings mild, rainy winters Summer precipitation can greatly vary

18 Marine west coast In North America, the marine west coast climate extends from northern California to southern Alaska Because of heavy precipitation, think forests of tall trees grow in this region One of the major industries of this region is harvesting and processing wood for lumber, paper, and furniture

19 Mediterranean A coastal climate that is drier and warmer than west coast marine is known as Mediterranean Most areas with this climate are found around the Mediterranean Sea In the United States, much of coastal California has a Mediterranean climate Mild, with two seasons Winter – marine air masses bring cool, rainy weather Summer – somewhat warmer, with little rain

20 Mediterranean climates
Mediterranean climates have two main vegetation types: Chaparral (dense shrubs and small tress) Grasses with a few large trees

21 Humid subtropical The warmest temperate marine climates are along the edges of the tropics Humid subtropical climates are wet and warm Not as constantly hot as the tropics The southeastern United States has a humid subtropical climate Summers are hot, with more rainfall than winters Winters are cool to mild, with more rain than snow

22 Temperate continental climates
Are not influences very much by oceans Have extremes of temperature

23 Temperate continental climates
Temperate continental climates are only found on continents in the Northern Hemisphere Include: Continental Subartic

24 Humid continental Shifting tropical and polar air masses bring constantly changing weather to humid continental climates Winter – continental polar air masses move south, bringing bitterly cold weather Summer – tropical air masses move north, bringing heat and humidity The northeastern region of the United States, as well as the Midwest, have humid continental climates

25 Subarctic climate Subarctic climates lie north of the humid continental climates Summers in the subarctic are short and cool Winters are long and bitterly cold

26 Polar climates The polar climate is the coldest climate region, and includes the ice cap and tundra climates.

27 Most polar climates are relatively dry
Ice cap and tundra climates are found only in the far north and south, near the North and South poles Most polar climates are relatively dry Cold air holds little moisture

28 Ice cap climate Found mainly on Greenland and Antarctica
Average temperatures always at or below freezing The land in this region is always covered with ice and snow Intense cold makes the air dry Lichens and a few low plants may grow on the rocks

29 Tundra climate Stretches across northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia
Short, cool summers Bitter, cold winters Some layers of the tundra are always frozen Permanently frozen soil is called permafrost Water cannot drain away, so the soil is wet and boggy in summer

30 Tundra climate It is too cold in the tundra for trees to grow
During the short summers the tundra is filled with life Mosquitos and other insects Mosses, grasses, lichens Caribou birds

31 highlands Temperature falls as altitude increases, so highland regions are colder than the regions that surround them

32 highlands Increasing altitude produces climate changes you would expect with increasing latitude Precipitation also increase as air masses carrying moisture pass over highland area Climate on the lower slopes of a mountain range is like that of the surrounding countryside

33 highlands As you go higher up the mountains, temperature becomes lower and precipitation increases Climate higher on the mountain is like that of the subarctic Above a certain elevation, called the tree line, temperatures are too low for trees to grow Climate above the tree line is like that of the tundra Only low plants, mosses, and lichens can grow there

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