3 Factors that Affect Climate Affect the 2 most important elements of climateTemperature & PrecipitationLatitudeElevationTopographyWater BodiesAtmospheric CirculationVegetation
4 Latitude Distance N or S of the equator As latitude increases, the intensity of solar energy decreaseThe sun’s rays are most intense in the tropics why…bc the region is at a right angle to the sunTropical ZonesTemperate ZonesPolar Zones
5 Elevation Height above sea level Air temp. decreases w/ elevation The higher the elevation is, the colder the climate isElevation also determines how much precipitation an area gets
6 TopographyTopographic features such as mountains play an important role in the amount of precipitation that falls over an area.Rain Shadows – the dry area on the leeward side of the mountain
7 Water BodiesLarge bodies of water such as lakes & oceans have an important effect on the temp. of an area bc the temp. of the water body influences the temp. of the air above itThink back to last unit…how does land heat & cool differently than water?????
8 Atmospheric Circulation Global winds influence climate bc they distribute heat & moisture around the EarthHEAT BALANCEWarm air to the poles & cool air to the equator
9 VegetationCertain types of plants only can grow in particular climatesVegetation can affect both temp. & precipitation patterns in a particular areaVegetation influences how much of the sun’s energy is absorbed & how fast this energy is released (affects temp.)Transpiration (influences precipitation)
10 REVIEW REVIEW REVIEW How does latitude affect climate? How does elevation affect climate?How does a mountain range affect climate?How do bodies of water affect climate?What effect do global winds have on climate?Describe how vegetation affects climate?
12 The Koppen Climate Classification System Uses mean monthly & annual values of temp. and precipitation to classify climatesClassifies it into climate regions5 principle groups: humid tropical, dry climates, humid mid-latitude, polar climates, & highland climates
13 Humid Tropical Climates Climates without wintersEvery month has a mean temp. above 18 oCAmt. of precipitation exceeds 200 cm2 types of humid tropical climates:Wet TropicalTropical Wet & Dry
14 Humid Tropical Climates Wet TropicalTropical Wet & DryTropical RainforestHigh temps. & a lot of precipitationSun’s rays are always highWinds blow over causing the warm, humid unstable air to rise cool and condense and then fall as precipitationBordering the wet tropicsHave temps. & total precipitation close to those in wet tropics, but this climate experiences times of low precipitation
16 Humid Mid-Latitude Climates Include climates with mild winters & severe wintersClimates with mild winters have an avg. temp. in the coldest month that is below 18 oC but above -3 oCSevere winters have an avg. temp. in the coldest month that is below -3 oC
17 Humid Mid – Latitude w/ Mild Winters 3 types: humid subtropical, marine west coast, & dry-summer subtropicalHumid subtropical – degrees latitude on the Eastern side of the continentMarine West Coast – degrees latitude N & SDry-Summer Subtropical – degrees latitude
18 Humid Mid-Latitude w/ Severe Winters 2 types: humid continental climates & subarctic climatesContinental landmasses strongly influence both climatesAbsent in the Southern Hemisphere
19 Dry ClimatesYearly precipitation is not as great as the potential loss of water by evaporationEvaporation is dependent on temperature2 types of dry climates: arid or desert & semi-arid or steppeResult of global distribution of air pressure and winds
20 Polar Climates Mean temp. of the warmest month is below 10 oC Very little precipitationEvaporation rates are also low2 types: Tundra Climate & Ice Cap ClimateTundra is a treeless region most in N. HemisphereIce Cap Climate does not have a single monthly mean above 0 oC & has little vegetation & permanent ice and snow
21 Highland ClimatesLocalized (much different from climates in surrounding areas)Vary from place to placeIn general they are cooler & wetter than nearby areas at lower elevations
22 REVIEW REVIEW REVIEWDescribe the Koppen climate classification system.How do highland climates compare with nearby lowlands?Can tundra climates exist at low latitudes? Why or why not?