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Presentation on theme: "Climate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate

2 Day 1 Objective: I can describe climate and the factors affecting it

3 What is Climate? Yearlong average of weather patterns over an area; determined by temperature and precipitation

4 Factors that Affect Climate
Latitude Elevation Topography Water Bodies Global Winds Vegetation

5 Factor #1: Latitude As latitude increases, the intensity of solar energy decreases Three Zones Tropical Temperate Polar

6 The Zones Zone 1: Tropical Zone
Region between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5ºN) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5ºS) Warm Year Round

7 Zone 3: Polar Zone Zone 2: Temperate Zone
Region between 23.5ºN/S and 66.5ºN/s of the equator Hot Summers Cold Winters Zone 3: Polar Zone Region from 66.5ºN/S of the equator to the poles Very cold temperature year round

8 Factor #2: Elevation Higher the elevation is, the colder the climate
Elevation determines amount of precipitation area receives

9 Factor #3: Topography Land features affect amount of precipitation that falls over an area Mountains cause a rain shadow event One side has cool, wet air One side has warm, dry air

10 Factor #4: Water Bodies Large bodies of water (lakes & oceans) have an important effect on the temperature of an area. Temperature of the water body influences the temperature of the air above (land areas near warm water currents have warm temperatures; ocean currents traveling away from equator are warm water currents)

11 Factor #5: Global Winds Winds distribute heat and moisture around the Earth Warm air moves to the poles) Cold air moves to the equator

12 Factor #6: Vegetation Affects both temperature and precipitation
Influence how much of the sun’s energy is absorbed and how quickly it is released Precipitation When plants release water vapor from its leaves into the air (transpiration)

13 Day 2 Objective: I can describe how climates are classified using the Köppen System.

14 Köppen Climate Classification System
Most commonly used system Uses mean monthly and annual values of temperature and precipitation Five Principal Groups Humid Tropical Humid Mid-Latitude Dry Highland Polar

15 Humid Tropical Climate
No Winters Monthly average temperature above 18ºC (64.4ºF) Precipitation can exceed 200-cm Two Types Wet Tropical Tropical Wet and Dry

16 Tropical Wet & Dry Wet Tropical High Temperature High Temperature
High annual precipitation Experiences distinct periods of low precipitation Wet Tropical High Temperature High annual precipitation

17 Humid Mid-Latitude Climate with Mild Winters
Mild winters with an average temperature in the coldest month that is below 18ºC (64.4ºF) but above -3ºC (26.6ºF) Three Types Humid Subtropical Marine West Coast Dry Summer Subtropical

18 Dry-Summer Subtropical Marine West Coast
Humid Subtropical Between 25º and 40º latitude on the eastern side of the continent Summer = hot, sultry Winter = wild NC climate Dry-Summer Subtropical Between 30º & 45º latitude Strong winter rainfall Only found in California Marine West Coast Between 40º and 65º N/S on the coastal area Summer = cool Winter = mild Northern California to Southern Alaska

19 Humid Mid-Latitude with Severe Winters
Severe winters have an average temperature in the coldest month that is below -3ºC (26.6ºF) Two Types Humid Continental Subarctic

20 Humid Continental Subarctic Not in the Southern Hemisphere
Between 40º and 50º N latitude Winters = Severe Summer = warm and great precipitation Subarctic Winters are long and bitterly cold Summers are warm and very short The highest annual temperature range on Earth

21 Dry Climate Yearly precipitation is not as great as the potential loss of water by evaporation Two Types Arid or Desert Semi-arid or Steppe Transition zone that surrounds the desert and separates it from humid climates

22 Cooler and wetter than nearby areas at lower elevations
Highland Climate Cooler and wetter than nearby areas at lower elevations

23 Polar Climate Average temperature of the warmest month is below 10ºC (50ºF) Little precipitation falls Winters = extremely cold Summer = cool Two Types Tundra Ice Caps

24 Tundra Treeless region found almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere Plant life of mosses, shrubs and flowering herbs Ice Caps Monthly average temperature below 0ºC (32ºF) Covered with permanent ice and snow

25 Day 3 Objective: I can explain the causes of changes in climate locally and world wide

26 Natural Process that Change Climate
Volcanic Eruption Ocean Circulation Solar Activity Earth’s Motions

27 Volcanic Eruption The presence of volcanic ash, dust and aerosols in the air increase the amount of solar radiation that is reflected back into space. Causes Earth’s lower atmosphere to cool

28 Ocean Circulation EL NINO
Causes parts of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean to become warmer than usual Arid places receive large amounts of rain Places that receive lots of rain may experience dry periods HERE? We have wet summers

29 LA NINA Surface temperatures in the Eastern Pacific are colder than average Hurricanes damage greater in La Nina times HERE? We have dry summers

30 Solar Activity Formation of sunspots appear to correspond with warm periods in Europe and North America 11 year cycle

31 Earth’s Motion Orbit and Tilt Earth’s tilt causes the seasons
Change in the degree of tilt or shape of orbit could cause global climate changes

32 Human Impact on Climate Change
The Greenhouse Effect Is a natural warming of both Earth’s lower atmosphere and surface Makes life as we know it possible Major Gases: Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide Humans have added more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere in the past 200 years by burning fossil fuels

33 Global Warming As a result of increases in Carbon Dioxide (CO2) as well as other greenhouse gases, global temperatures have increased Affects weather and climates

34 Temperatures Rising due to Global Warming
Effects Glaciers melting Greenland—If all of the ice melts, oceans will rise 23 feet Antarctic—major reduction in ice coverage Permafrost in Tundra is releasing CO2 that is stored under the ice

35 Hottest Years Since 1980, the Earth has had 19 of its 20 hottest years on record 2010 2005 2009 2007 2006 1998 2002 2003 2001 1997

36 Antarctica Melting If all of the ice in the glaciers of Antarctica melts, the oceans will rise

37 Word bank cool cooled decreases temperatures dry dry climates
heavy precipitation higher low ranges lower precipitation temperatures warmed wind

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