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Climatic Controls Latitude Altitude Continentality Prevailing Wind

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Presentation on theme: "Climatic Controls Latitude Altitude Continentality Prevailing Wind"— Presentation transcript:

1 Climatic Controls Latitude Altitude Continentality Prevailing Wind
Air Mass Variability Topography Ocean Currents Land Use / Land Cover Change

2 Empiric classification: Köppen and later modified by Thornthwaite and Trewartha
looked at the global distribution of different plant and animal species and attempted to see how weather variables correlated with these patterns. Temperature and precipitation

3 Köppen climate classification
Five primary categories A Tropical B Dry C Mesothermal- “moderate” D Microthermal- “low” E Polar



6 A climates Mean temperature of coldest month is above 18°C (64°F)
Essentially, no freezes Tropical Rainy: no dry season Tropical Wet-and-Dry: short dry season Tropical Monsoon: long dry season

7 TROPICAL RAINFOREST Annual precip > 80” No real seasons
Sticky, humid air, with little wind High sun angle all year

8 Tropical Savanna and Monsoon
alternating 3 month wet and dry periods dominated by movement of ITCZ Monsoon 5 - 7 month wet and dry regime Both have 40 – 80” precip/year and average temps above 64°F every month

9 B climates Arid and Semi-arid P < PE BW (Desert): BS (Steppe):

10 Steppes Dry short grass regions surrounding deserts
There are cold and hot steppes Hot steppes are subtropical South Texas Cold steppes are at mid latitudes Montana Both have approximately 10 – 20” annual precip

11 Deserts Hot and Cold deserts just like Steppes
Both have < 10” precip/year Abundant sunshine Hot desert Sahara Cold desert Gobi

12 C climates Essentially, it freezes but snow is not permanently on the ground in winter. Mediterranean: dry summer Wet-and-dry: dry winter Humid: no dry season

13 Humid Subtropical Mild winters with temperatures frequently dipping below freezing (northern limits) to infrequent freezes (southern limits) Hot summers Abundant precip throughout the year SE U.S.

14 Mediterranean (dry summer subtropical)
No summer rain Very little late spring/early fall rain Cool moist winters and warm summers Climate moderated by cold water Abundant sunshine Southern Cal

15 Marine West Coast Cool/cold and moist winters
Pleasant summers with temps generally not exceeding 85°F Summer is drier Persistent fog, drizzle, gray skies for the majority of the year Seattle, London

16 D climates Coldest month is less than -3°C; warmest month above 10°C.
Essentially, where snow remains on the ground for part of the winter. Wet-and-dry: dry winter Humid: no dry season

17 Humid Continental Cold winters and warm summers Precip in every month
Northern U.S. Humid Continental (cool summers) Located farther north with colder winters Southern canada

18 Subarctic Boreal or Taiga
Brutal winters Coniferous forests Short cool summer with average temps breaking 50F and frequently reaching the 70s Not much precip 10 – 20” Northern Hemisphere only Most of Canada, Russia

19 E climates Warmest month below 10°C.
Essentially, where it’s too cold for trees to grow Tundra: it thaws in summer Ice Cap: it doesn’t

20 Tundra and Icecap Tundra is treeless Average temps do not break 50°F
Small flowering plants, lichens, mosses, Horrible insects in summer when permafrost thaws Icecap is frozen year round Occasionally temperatures will rise above freezing

21 Alpine or Highland Complex climates because of altitude
Can be a little of everything depending on the elevation





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