Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Biochemistry Modern Biology Textbook Holt"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 Biochemistry Modern Biology Textbook Holt
2 Objectives Chapter 3 Section 1 Carbon Compounds Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.Explain the importance of carbon bonding in biological molecules.Identify functional groups in biological molecules.Summarize how large carbon molecules are synthesized and broken down.Describe how the breaking down of ATP supplies energy to drive chemical reactions.
3 Section 1 Carbon Compounds Carbon BondingChapter 3Organic compounds contain carbon atoms and are found in living things.Most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms.
4 Carbon Bonding, continued Section 1 Carbon CompoundsCarbon Bonding, continuedChapter 3Carbon atoms can readily form four covalent bonds with other atoms including other carbon atoms. The carbon bonds allow the carbon atoms to form a wide variety of simple and complex organic compounds.
6 Chapter 3 Functional Groups Section 1 Carbon CompoundsChapter 3Functional GroupsFunctional groups are groups of atoms that influence the properties of molecules and the chemical reactions in which the molecules participate.Condensation reactions join monomers (small simple molecules) to form polymers. A condensation reaction releases water as a by-product.In a hydrolysis reaction, water is used to split polymers into monomers.
7 Chapter 3 Energy Currency Section 1 Carbon CompoundsChapter 3Energy CurrencyAdenosine triphosphate (ATP) stores and releases energy during cell processes, enabling organisms to function.
8 Chapter 3 Objectives Section 2 Molecules of Life Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides,and polysaccharides.Explain the relationship between amino acids and protein structure.Describe the induced fit model of enzyme action.Compare the structure and function of each of the different types of lipids.Compare the nucleic acids DNA and RNA.
9 Chapter 3 Carbohydrates Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.Carbohydrates are a source of energy and are used as structural materials in organisms.
10 Carbohydrates, continued Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Carbohydrates, continuedMonosaccharidesCarbohydrates are made up of monomers called monosaccharides.Disaccharides and PolysaccharidesTwo monosaccharides join to form a double sugar called a disaccharide.A complex sugar, or polysaccharide, is made of three or more monosaccharides.
11 Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3ProteinsProteins are organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.Proteins have many functions including structural, defensive, and catalytic roles.
12 Chapter 3 Proteins, continued Amino Acids Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Proteins, continuedAmino AcidsProteins are made up of monomers called amino acids. The sequence of amino acids determines a protein’s shape and function.Dipeptides and PolypeptidesTwo amino acids are joined by peptide bonds to form a dipeptide.A long chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide.
13 Section 2 Molecules of Life Structure of ProteinsChapter 3
14 Chapter 3 Proteins, continued Enzymes Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Proteins, continuedEnzymesEnzymes speed up chemical reactions and bind to specific substrates.The binding of a substrate with an enzyme causes a change in the enzyme’s shape and reduces the activation energy of the reaction.
15 Section 2 Molecules of Life Enzyme ActivityChapter 3
16 Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3LipidsLipids are nonpolar molecules that store energy and are an important part of cell membranes.
17 Chapter 3 Lipids, continued Fatty Acids Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Lipids, continuedFatty AcidsMost lipids contain fatty acids, unbranched carbon molecules that have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end.TriglyceridesTriglycerides consist of three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.
18 Chapter 3 Lipids, continued Phospholipids Section 2 Molecules of LifeChapter 3Lipids, continuedPhospholipidsPhospholipids, which make up cell membranes, consist of two fatty acids and one glycerol molecule.WaxesA wax is made of one long fatty acid chain joined to one long alcohol.SteroidsA steroid is composed of four fused carbon rings.
19 Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Nucleic AcidsA nucleic acid is a large and complex organic molecule that stores and transports information.The nucleic acid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains genetic information for cell activities.Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules play many key roles in building of proteins and can act as enzymes.
20 Structure of Nucleic Acids Section 2 Molecules of LifeStructure of Nucleic AcidsChapter 3
21 Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3DNA Overview
22 Multiple ChoiceChapter 3Standardized Test Prep1. Which of the following is not a function of polysaccharides? A. energy source B. energy storage C. structural support D. storage of genetic information
23 Multiple Choice, continued Chapter 3Standardized Test Prep2. Which of the following statements is false? F. A wax is a lipid. G. Starch is a lipid. H. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. J. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.
24 Multiple Choice, continued Chapter 3Standardized Test Prep3. Which of the following molecules stores hereditary information? A. ATP B. DNA C. protein D. carbohydrates
25 Multiple Choice, continued Chapter 3Standardized Test Prep4. What is the name of the molecule in plants that stores sugars? F. starch G. protein H. cellulose J. glycogen
26 Multiple Choice, continued Chapter 3Standardized Test PrepMultiple Choice, continuedThe figure below illustratesthe basic structure of a cell membrane. Use thefigure to answer the questions that follow.5. Which of the following molecules make up the basic structure of a cell membrane?A. waxesB. steroidsC. fatty acidsD. phospholipids
27 Multiple Choice, continued Chapter 3Standardized Test PrepMultiple Choice, continuedThe figure below illustratesthe basic structure of a cell membrane. Use thefigure to answer the questions that follow.6. The “tails” of the molecules in the figure orient away from water. Which of the following describes the tail’s movement away from water?F. polarG. adhesiveH. hydrophilicJ. hydrophobic
29 Multiple Choice, continued Chapter 3Standardized Test PrepMultiple Choice, continuedThe figure below representsthe structural formula of a molecule. Use thefigure to answer the question that follows.8. What is the name of the functional group circled in the structural formula?F. aminoG. hydroxylH. phosphateJ. carboxyl
30 Short Response, continued Chapter 3Standardized Test PrepShort Response, continuedProteins are affected by environmental conditions such as heat and pH.Explain why the process of cooking an egg cannot be reversed.Answer:The heat that is added to the egg changes the bonds in the proteins and other molecules that make up the egg to such a large extent that the original protein shape can no longer be distinguished.
31 Chapter 3 Extended Response Standardized Test PrepExtended ResponseEnzymes are essential for the functioning of all cells.Part A Explain what enzymes do that is essential for cell function.Part B Explain the induced fit model of enzyme action.Answer:Part A Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions that are involved in important cell processes.Part B Bonding of the substrates to enzymes causes a slight change in the enzyme’s shape, thereby weakening some of the bonds and lowering activation energy.