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Biomolecules The Molecules of Life

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Presentation on theme: "Biomolecules The Molecules of Life"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomolecules The Molecules of Life
Photo Credit: © John Conrad/CORBIS

2 All Organic Compounds (Biomolecules) contain the element Carbon!
The Chemistry of Carbon Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms.

3 Macromolecules Macromolecules are formed by a process known as
POLYMERIZATION the process of converting monomers into polymers Monomers – building blocks of more complex molecules Polymers –many monomers

4 Dehydration Synthesis
Building large molecules while removing water Joining monomers to form polymers

5 Hydrolysis Adding water to break apart a molecule
Breaking polymers into monomers

6 Four groups of organic compounds found in all living things are:
Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids

7 Carbohydrates – composed of C, H, O
What is the function of carbohydrates? Primary source of energy Energy storage Structure and support Proper function of nervous, digestive, circulatory and immune systems

8 Carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the ratio of 1:2:1 (CH2O) General molecular formula Monomer - Glucose

9 Carbohydrates-made by plants through photosynthesis
Different sizes of carbohydrates: *Monosaccharides – single sugars (C6H12O6) ex. Glucose (the most common sugar), galactose and fructose *Disaccharides – two single sugars joined ex. Lactose & sucrose & maltose *Polysaccharides – 3 or more single sugars joined ex. Cellulose (in cell walls of plants) Starch (stored in plants) Glycogen (stored in animals)

10 Lipids – C, H, O many more carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms compared to oxygen atoms
Lipids are generally not soluble in water. The common categories of lipids are: Fats, oils, and waxes Hormones Steroids Cholesterol Waterproof coverings Cell membrane – lipid bilayer

11 Lipids Function: store energy long term energy storage
some lipids are important parts of biological membranes (cell membrane) and waterproof coverings (cuticle on plants) Not considered true polymers because they are small and the monomers are not repeating: Fat – consist of 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids

12 Structure of a Lipids - triglycerides
Consists of a glycerol and 3 fatty acids fatty acid glycerol

13 Structure of a Lipids - triglycerides

14 Saturated and Unsaturated Fats
Saturated – contain maximum number of hydrogen atoms unsaturated – contain at least one double bond polyunsaturated – contain several double bonds

15 Lipids

16 Proteins – C, H, O, N Held by Peptide bonds
Polymers of monomers called amino acids.

17 Amino Acids: 20 common amino acids
General formula for an amino acid -NH2 is amino group -COOH is carboxyl -R group (different for each protein -names always end in -ine Amino acids are the monomers of proteins. All amino acids have an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group at the other end.

18 The instructions for arranging amino acids into many different proteins are stored in DNA.
Protein Molecule Amino Acids Proteins help to carry out chemical reactions, transport small molecules in and out of cells, and fight diseases. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids folded into complex structures.

19 Polymers of proteins Polypeptide – chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds

20 Functions of proteins:
Catalysts to control the rate of chemical reactions Structural support and movement Transport & Communication: moves small molecules into or out of cells Help to fight disease

21 Examples of Proteins: Blood protein is hemoglobin
Enzymes (biological catalysts) Skin, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, muscle, cartilage, fingernails and toenails Antibodies

22 Nucleic Acids – C, H, O, N, P Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleotides.

23 Nucleic Acids: Monomers
Nucleotides consist of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar a phosphate group a nitrogenous base Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Uracil

24 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information. *Genetic Blueprint* Examples and Polymers: ribonucleic acid (RNA) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

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