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Body Planes, Directions, & Cavities

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Presentation on theme: "Body Planes, Directions, & Cavities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Body Planes, Directions, & Cavities
Med Terms & Principles of Health Science BECKY JACKSON, R.N.

2 Purpose of Body Planes & Directions
To document info about pts., terms have to be used that specify regions or directions of the body Ex: to identify locations of pain or injury, write: 1 cm. laceration on the right anterior forearm, distal to the elbow.

3 These locations are based on “anatomical position” of the body-the position with the body upright with arms at the sides and the palms forward.

4 Body Planes Imaginary lines drawn through the body to separate the body into sections Transverse Median or sagittal Frontal or coronal

5 Transverse plane Horizontal plane that divides the body into a top & bottom half Superior:body parts above other parts Inferior:body parts below other parts Ex:Knee is superior to ankle but inferior to hip

6 Midsagittal or median plane
Divides the body into left and right sides Medial-body parts close to midline or middle Lateral:body parts away from the midline or middle

7 Frontal (or coronal) plane
Divides the body into a front and back section

8 Cranial (cephalic) vs caudal
Cranial: towards the head Caudal: towards the tail

9 Medial vs lateral Medial: close or towards the midline
Lateral: away from the midline

10 Superior vs inferior Superior: towards the top
Inferior: towards the bottom

11 Anterior vs posterior Anterior or Ventral: towards the front of the body Posterior or Dorsal: towards the back of the body

12 Anterior/Ventral Posterior/Dorsal

13 Proximal vs distal Used to describe the location of the extremeties in relation to the main trunk of the body or the point of reference. Body parts close to point of reference-proximal Body parts away from point of reference-distal

14 Proximal & Distal Example: With the shoulder as the point of reference, the wrist is distal (further away) & elbow is proximal (closer) to shoulder.

15 Directions Superior vs inferior Cranial vs caudal Medial vs lateral
Anterior vs posterior Dorsal vs ventral Proximal vs distal

16 Body Cavities-Spaces that contain vital organs
Dorsal cavity (posterior) Cranial cavity (head) Spinal cavity (spine) Ventral cavity (anterior) Thoracic cavity (chest) Abdomino-pelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Orbital cavity (eyes) Nasal cavity (nose) Buccal cavity (mouth)

17 Dorsal cavity One long continuous cavity-smaller than anterior cavities Cranial cavity(cephalic) contains the brain Spinal cavity: contains the spinal cord

18 Ventral or Anterior cavity-larger than dorsal cavities
Thoracic cavity: contains esophagus, trachea, bronchi, lungs, & heart, lg. blood vessels Abdomino-pelvic cavity Upper Abdominal cavity: stomach, large intestine (colon), small intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen Lower abdominal-pelvic cavity: urinary bladder, reproductive organs, last part of large intestine Diaphragm: muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomino-pelvic

19 THORACIC CAVITY Heart, lungs bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus


21 DIAPHRAGM The diaphragm is a muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities.

22 ABDOMINAL CAVITY Contains stomach, small and large intestine, spleen,
Pancreas, liver, gallbladder

Portions of small intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs

24 Abdominal quadrants (4)
Four quadrants with the umbilicus at the center RUQ-right upper LUQ-left upper RLQ-right lower LLQ-left lower


26 Abdominal Regions (9) Right hypochondriac region-below ribs (right)
Left hypochondriac region-below ribs (left) Epigastric region-Above stomach area Umbilical region-”belly button” Right lumbar region-near the waist area Left lumbar region-near the waist area Right inguinal (iliac) region-groin Left inguinal (iliac) region-groin Hypogastric region-below stomach area

27 3 Small Cavities Orbital-eyes Nasal-nose structures Buccal-mouth

28 If an injury were described as a “posterior cranial laceration,” where would the injury be?
If an injury occurred in the LUQ, where would this be?

29 STAB WOUND What is the location of this stab wound?


31 APPENDECTOMY SCAR How would you describe the location of this scar?

32 GB SCAR How would you describe the location of this scar?

33 Image Citations Slide 3: 8/27/06, Slide 4: Sagittal plane, 8/27/06, Slide 5: Frontal plane, 8/27/06, Slide 7 & 9 &12: Directional terms, 8/27/06, Slide 8: Anatomical terms, planes, 8/27/06,

34 Image Citations Slide 11: photo of a dog illustrating dorsal, ventral, anterior and posterior, 8/27/06, Slide 14: Body cavities, 8/31/06, Slide 16, 17: Delmar Learning’s Medical Terminology Image Library, Second Edition, Version 1.0, 2003.

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