2 Anatomical Position Body standing upright feet slightly apart palms facing forwardthumbs point away from body
3 Directional TermsSuperior and inferior – toward and away from the head, respectivelyAnterior and posterior – toward the front and back of the body, respectivelyMedial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure
4 Directional TermsProximal and distal – closer to and farther from the origin of the bodySuperficial and deep – toward and away from the body surface
7 Regional Terms: Anterior View Axial – head, neck, and trunkAppendicular – appendages or limbsSpecific regional terminologypgs of textbook
8 Regional Terms: Posterior View Make sure you know ALL of these terms!
9 Body Planes Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midlineFrontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior partsTransverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior partsOblique section – cuts made diagonally
10 Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane) A verticle plane running from side to side; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions.Sagittal Plane (Lateral Plane) A verticle plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides.Axial Plane (Transverse Plane) A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts.Median plane Sagittal plane through the midline of the body; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left halves.
11 Anatomical Variability or “Plasticity” Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomyOver 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but:Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of placeSmall muscles may be missingExtreme anatomical variations are seldom seen
13 Body CavitiesDorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisionsCranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brainVertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cordVentral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: thoracic and abdominopelvic
16 Body CavitiesThoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavityPleural cavities – each houses a lungMediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organsPericardial cavity – encloses the heart
17 Body CavitiesThe abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragmIt is composed of two subdivisionsAbdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organsPelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
18 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Parietal peritoneum lines internal body wallsVisceral peritoneum covers the internal organsSerous fluid separates the parietal and visceral peritoneum
19 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Outer balloon wall comparable to the parietal peritoneumInner balloon wall (comparable to visceral peritoneum)
21 Other Body CavitiesOral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organsNasal –located within and posterior to the noseOrbital – house the eyesMiddle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrationsSynovial – joint cavities
22 Abdominopelvic Retions UmbilicalEpigastricHypogastricRight and left iliac or inguinalRight and left lumbarRight and left hypochondriac