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Ages & Stages of Child Development
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Learner Objectives Identify stages of child development
Understand physical, intellectual, emotional and social characteristics of developmental stages Apply stages to interactions with children Slide 2: How many stages of child development can you name before we see this powerpoint? What types of descriptions are included in the physical, intellectual, emotional and social characteristics of the stages of development? What area do you think would be the most interesting to learn more about?
Significance of this Study
Studying child development helps us to learn: Children have stages of growth Creeping and crawling before walking Each stage builds on previous stages Feeling trust must come before acting independently Stages are only a guide, each child will grow at their own pace “Early” and “late” walkers can come from the same family Slide 3-4: These slides tell us why it is important to learn about child development. What reasons do you have for wanting to learn more? Why is it important that all people learn more about child development?
Significance of this Study (cont.)
Development does not always go forward in even steps After learning toilet independence, a child may forget their new skill Mistakes are normal Children fall often before they walk Children grow in several areas simultaneously Listening to a book brings about learning a language, trust in an adult and how to turn pages .
Stage Names and Age Ranges
Newborn Birth to three months Infancy Three months to one year Toddlerhood One to three years Preschool age Three to five years School age Five to ten years Slide 5: This slide lists the ages in each stage of child development. How many children do you know in each of these stages? Which stage do you predict has the most changes and growth? If you had a career working with children, which of these stages would you most like to work with and why?
Types of Growth & Development
Physical Development – Growth in the body’s size and ability Growing taller Gaining weight Building muscles Coordinating eyes and hands Emotional Development – Maturing of the mind Thinking Reasoning Using language Forming ideas Slide 6: In these slides – the types of growth and development, the overall physical and intellectual development characteristics are described. Can you see physical development changes more easily or do you think it is just as easy to see how a child grows in intellectual development?
Emotional and Social Development
Expression of feelings and relationships with others Strong feelings, such as love, fear, anger Self esteem Sharing Coping with change Communicating with others Playing with others Learning right and wrong Slide 7: What makes social development so challenging for some children? How important is it for parents to model good behaviors associated to emotional and social development? (Answers will vary)
Newborn Development (birth to three months)
Physically Short necks Sloping shoulders Protruding abdomen Narrow chests Weak legs and arms They are very helpless Respond to touch and warmth May kick or cry at air changes, rough textures or moisture See patterns in close-up objects They see best at an eight-inch distance Communicate by crying and cooing and beginning to smile Slide 8: How many of these physical development characteristics have you observed in a newborn? What is your experience with newborns?
Reflexes of Newborns Rooting Reflex: Grasping Reflex: Startle Reflex:
When the newborn’s cheek is stroked, they turn their head toward the touch and open their mouth and start sucking in search of food. Grasping Reflex: When the inside of the palm is touched, babies grasp a finger tightly. Startle Reflex: When a baby is put down, held away, or hears a loud noise, a baby throws out their arms, draw back their head and stretch out their legs in response. Babinski Reflex: Babies extend their toes when the soles of their feet are stroked. Slide 9: How many of you have observed these behaviors in newborns? Did you know that each type of reflex had a name? Can you give an example of how a newborn exhibits the grasping reflex or the startle reflex?
Newborn Care Giving Guidelines
Establish a daily routine Provide consistent care Talk to infants Hold infants close while giving care Provide an interesting environment Be relaxed and calm Develop bonding by cuddling infants Slide 10: Do you think it is harder to care for a newborn than an older child? What are some things that are more challenging for you as a caregiver of a newborn? (Answers will vary)
Infant Development (three months to one year)
Physical Development Rapid growth – 11/2 times in length and 3 times weight from birth to 1 year Hold head up and turn it Control of arm and leg movements Support themselves with arms when on tummy Grasp and drop objects Learn to sit Begin to creep or crawl Pull themselves up to standing position Develop hand-eye coordination Slide 11: Infants grow and change rapidly. Have you ever noticed what it is like to buy clothes for infants? How often does a 6 month old baby wear the 6 month clothes? What special things are used when making infant clothing to make them more accommodating for this type of child? (Answers will vary) How many of you know when you were able to sit or stand?
Infant Development (cont.)
Intellectual Development Communicate at first by crying Coo and begin to babble Begin to say a few words Explore objects by touching and putting them in their mouth Slide 12: Who remembers what your parents told you were the first words that you said? Is it true that “everything goes into an infant’s mouth”? What types of changes in the home need to happen when an infant begins crawling?
Infant Development (cont.)
Emotional and Social Development Recognize caregivers Experience stranger anxiety with unfamiliar person Experience separation anxiety when caregiver leaves Fear moving too far from caregiver when playing Need to develop trust in their caregivers. Slide 13: How many of you have seen “stranger anxiety” in an infant? Describe the situation. How would you describe the “play time” of an infant?
Infant Care Giving Guidelines
When holding young infants, support their head and neck. Make the environment safe for the child by removing harmful objects that are within their reach. Choose toys that are safe; check the size and sturdiness. Pay special attention to their safety when they are crawling. Slide 14: What are your challenges when you are a babysitter for an infant? What do you think would be the most important quality a parent would look for when choosing a caregiver?
Toddlers Development (one to three years)
Physical Development Grow rapidly, becoming taller and heavier Strengthening of bones and muscles Begin to walk, climb, run, throw balls, stack blocks and turn knobs Begin to use a spoon and cup Seem to be in constant motion Slide 15: What do you observe and notice most about a toddler? Describe their physical accomplishments.
Toddlers Development (cont.)
Intellectual Development Begin talking and saying short sentences Understand more than they can say Learn names of body parts and objects around them Begin to understand a vague sense of time, counting, colors, shapes, sizes Slide 16: What observations have you made about the intellectual development of toddlers? Do toddlers understand more than they can communicate? What would be a fun learning game to play with toddlers related to intellectual development?
Toddlers Development (cont.)
Emotional and Social Development Play next to, rather than with, other children Say “no” and “I do it myself” a lot Take pride in dressing and feeding themselves May grab a toy if another child looks at the toy Begin to learn rules and limits Begin to understand right and wrong Test new behaviors and observe results of their actions May be easily frustrated May have extreme mood swings Developing a sense of self worth May have a fantasy life Slide 17: Why do you think a favorite word of toddlers is “no”? What are some of the hardest social development characteristics that a toddler must learn? Under the category of emotional development – a toddler is easily frustrated. Do you think this is true of the toddlers you have observed? Why?
Toddler Care Giving Guidelines
Provide toys at the child’s ability level: Puzzles, nesting buckets, and blocks. Take walks to explore surroundings and talk about what’s being seen. Identify objects the child can see, hear, smell, touch or taste. Read to the child and name objects in pictures. Let the child help with simple household tasks. Compliment the child on their good behavior and accomplishments. Read and talk to the child. Slide 18: What are the most popular toys that toddlers have? What type of activity have you done as a care giver of a toddler that has taught them something educational? Name a household task that a toddler could help with.
Preschoolers Development (three to five years)
Physical Development Arms and legs become longer in relation to their torso Becomes thinner Improved ability to hop, skip, catch and throw and balance on one foot Can feed themselves and work large buttons or zippers Can use small scissors and glue things together Can draw somewhat realistic pictures Slide 19: What do you think is the most important physical development characteristic of a preschooler and why? What physical game can you play successfully with a preschooler?
Preschoolers Development (cont.)
Intellectual Development Ask “who, what and where” questions about their environment Use short sentences to carry on a conversation Begin to learn about reading, writing and following directions Can concentrate on a task Slide 20: Give an example of intellectual development displayed by a preschooler. Share a conversation you had with a preschooler. What topics did you discuss? What surprised you about their knowledge of the subject?
Preschoolers Development (cont.)
Emotional and Social Development Are eager to please Begin to be cooperative and to share in playing with others Begin to solve simple problems Can understand and follow rules Have a sense of right and wrong Want to avoid punishment and gain rewards Express feelings Need to develop positive feelings about themselves May have fears, such as of the dark May not grasp differences between fantasy and reality Slide 21: From your experiences, did the social development of the preschoolers follow the guidelines given on our slide? How do preschoolers often express their feelings?
Preschoolers Care Giving Guidelines
Build motor skills by providing water play, encouraging running, skipping, playing catch and with games like hide and seek and Simon Says. Do simple crafts, storytelling, use puppets and play dress up. Encourage the child to talk about their activities, artwork and feelings about their friends and family. Provide puzzles, cutting and coloring activities. Assign household tasks and help the child to successfully complete the task. Talk with the child about their everyday activities and feelings, encouraging their questions. Slide 22: As a babysitter, have you followed these care giving guidelines? Which of the activities mentioned have you done with Preschoolers? From your experiences, what type of activities do preschoolers enjoy most?
School Age Children Development (five to ten years)
Physical Development Replacement of baby teeth with permanent teeth Increased ability in large motor skills – kicking and catching a ball Slide 23: If you were a teacher, what would be the challenges for teaching children at age five to ten? Tell a story about the loss of a baby tooth.
School Age Children Development (cont.)
Intellectual Development Exploring and testing of their environment and ideas Asking many questions about how and why things are as they are Learning math, reading and writing skills Expanding vocabularies by about 5000 words per year Slide 24: What do you remember about yourself or a brother or sister regarding asking lots of questions? How is asking questions important to the intellectual development?
School Age Children Development (cont.)
Emotional and Social Development Forming peer groups Taking more responsibility for their behavior Discovering that rules may be flexible Knowing difference between right and wrong Recognizing others have feelings Feeling of fear may decrease Feeling of stress may increase Slide 25: What do you remember about learning to share? What examples of sharing or problems learning to share can you give from children you have observed recently? What are some of the issues parents or children have to deal with if children have trouble with social or emotional development?
School Age Children Care Giving Guidelines
Support the child’s involvement in learning and participating in school activities. Help the child to develop one or two special interests, such as collecting stamps or rocks, studying birds, playing an instrument, or getting involved in a sport. Help them develop one or two special interests such as collecting of something like stamps, rocks, or studying birds. Provide realistic positive feedback. Encourage friendships and involvement in groups of children you know well. Provide ways for the child to learn responsibilities such as caring for pets. Encourage healthy eating habits and appropriate feelings about body image. Slide 26: What types of responsibilities were you given as a child? Did you have pets? What kinds of chores did you have? What do you remember about having collections, hobbies, playing an instrument or being in a sport when you were in elementary school?
Discussion Questions 1. How does knowledge of child development help parents with the task of parenting? 2. Why does a doctor check a child’s height and weight when giving regular check-ups? 3. How does knowing sequences of development help a parent support the child’s growth and development? 4. When should a child begin to help with household chores? 5. How does knowledge of child development reduce the potential for child abuse? Slide Continue to follow the discussion and review questions given on all of the remainder of the slides.
Review 1. This type of development refers to development of the mind. It is the ability to think, reason, use language and form ideas. What is it? Answer: Intellectual 2. This development is the growth or change in body size and ability. What type is it? Answer: Physical
Review (cont.) 3. When you learn the rules and learn to communicate and get along with others, you are experiencing this type of development. Answer: Social 4. Love, happiness, fear and anger are sometimes expressed in this type of development. Answer: Emotional
Match the Ages to the Stages of Child Development
1. 3 months to one year A. Preschool age 2. three to five years B. Newborn 3. birth to 3 months C. Toddlerhood 4. one to three years D. School Age 5. five to ten years E. Infancy
Web Sites to Review Examples of Developmental Stages
Developmental Milestones Halsey Schools – Ages and Stages of Child Development Hills/Help_Pages/Ages & Stages/12-24 Months.htm Normal Stages of Human Development Other References Butler, S. & Kratz, D. (1999). The Field Guide to Parenting. Worcester, MA: Chandler House Press. Gesell, A. & Ilg, F. (1943). Infant and Child in the Culture of Today. New York: Harper & Brothers Publisher. Davis, L. & Keyser, J. (1997). Becoming the Parent You Want to Be. New York: Broadway Books. Consultants Dr. Marty Rossmann, Professor Emeritus, Family Education, University of Minnesota Colleen Angel, FACS Educator .
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