Two and Three Year Olds Toddlers are classified as 2 and 3 year olds. Today we are going to look at the physical, cognitive, social and emotional development of children at this age.
2 year olds First, lets start with 2 year olds. Keep in mind that no 2 year old will develop the exact same way. The development in these slides are broad milestones that they should be closely working towards or already achieving. This point applies to children of all ages and the respective milestones.
Physical Development Gross motor development
Improved coordination and body control Can walk up and down stairs if they place both feet on each stair Can jump several inches off the floor Can sit on a riding toy and move it by pushing with their feet Gross motor skills require the whole body movement which involve the large muscles of the body to perform everyday functions like standing, running, and sitting upright. For a 2 year old, the following are skills commonly acquired: Improved coordination and body control, can walk up and down stairs if they place both feet on each stair, can jump several inches off the floor, and can sit on a riding toy and move it by pushing with their feet.
Physical Development Fine motor development
Can insert keys into a lock and turn pages in a book one at a time Can hold scissors properly Hand preference is fairly developed At 24 months, kids can scribble Hold the crayon or pencil in their fist Can build with blocks Fine motor development involve coordination of the small muscles in the hands and fingers used in writing, cutting, using a fork or spoon, moving puzzle pieces, zipping, and tying shoe laces. For 2 year olds development include being able to insert keys into a lock, turn pages in a book one at a time, and hold scissors properly. Hand preference is fairly developed. Kids can scribble, hold the crayon or pencil in their fist, and can build with blocks.
Physical Development Self – help skills Undress self
Dress self by pulling on simple garments Zipper usage Drink from a cup or glass Can use a spoon Potty training Self-care is an opportunity for children to feel in charge of their body and know that they are trusted by their parents. For 2 year olds they include being able to dress and undress themselves by pulling on or off simple garments, zipper usage, drinking from a cup or glass, using a spoon, and potty training.
Language Comprehension Skills Understanding of language 2 year olds can understand and answer routine questions (e.g. What is that?) Can tell difference between soft/heavy, big/tall Cognitive development has to do with thought processes in the areas of information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory. For 2 year olds, their language comprehension skills include understanding and answering routine questions such as what is that? They should also be able to understand the meaning of soft, heavy, big, and tall.
Expressive Language Skills The ability to produce language forms The child’s experiences affect the rate and content Important to provide an environment that stimulates language development Two language strategies Feeding – in: you provide child’s language Expansion: reframing child’s word into a sentence Expressive Language Skills is a second branch of cognitive development. 2 year olds have the ability to produce language forms, the child’s experiences affect the rate and content, and it is important to provide an environment that stimulates language development. Two language strategies include “feeding in” where you provide language for the child and “expansion” where you reframe the child’s word into a sentence.
Express language skills 50 to 200 word vocabulary Girls generally develop language skills faster than boys Often use the word “no” For expressing language skills 2 years can range from a 50 to 200 word vocabulary. Girls generally develop language skills faster than boys. And toddlers at this age often use the word “no”.
Math Readiness Skills Developed as children interact with others and with objects Begin to sort objects by shape and color Math readiness skills are developed as children interact with other and with objects. At this age, they should begin to sort objects by shape and color.
Social – Emotional Development
Social development Children play next to each other, but not with each other More interested in adults than other kids Act out adult experiences as they play (driving, talking on the phone) Possessive; do not want to share Affectionate Social development has to do with the child’s interactions with others. 2 year olds tend to play next to each other, but not with each other. Adults still have their main interest as opposed to other kids. They begin to act out things that they have seen adults do such as driving or talking on the phone. Also, at this age, children are very possessive and do not want to share. But at the same time they are very affectionate.
Social – Emotional Development
2 year olds like to be able to control their surroundings Doing a task too difficult for them may cause anger Commonly develop fears (most often of being harmed or hurt, or stem from their imagination) Need regular routines to build trust and security Need love and caring, despite their temper As far as emotional development, 2 year olds like to be able to control their surroundings. Doing a task too difficult for them may cause them to be angry and scream or cry. Commonly developed fears include being harmed or hurt, and stem from their imagination. They need regular routines to build trust and security and love and care, despite their temper.
When teaching 2 year olds be prepared for:
The word “no”… A LOT Egocentricity … they think you feel the same way they do Dawdling … they go at their own pace Curiosity … especially with toys. Add new items a few at a time. Temper tantrums … be calm and composed. Here are some points to be prepared for when teaching 2 year olds. They will probably say the word “no” a lot. They are in an egocentric stage where they think you feel the same way they do. They will go at their own pace (often called dawdling). Their curiosity drives them, especially with toys. When giving out toys, add new items a few at a time that way they are not overwhelmed. Lastly, there will be temper tantrums but it is important during those times remain calm and composed.
3 year olds Now we are going to talk about the development of 3 year olds.
Physical Development Gross motor development Fine motor skills
Throwing, jumping and hopping improve due to better coordination Can climb and descend stairs easily Can ride and steer tricycle Fine motor skills Cutting skills more refined Can reproduce simple shapes as they draw Can trace Enjoy drawing faces that include a mouth, eyes, nose and ears that are not proportional At 3 years old the gross motor development includes throwing and jumping and hopping improve due to better coordination. They can climb and descend stairs easily (as opposed to just learning at 2) and can ride and steer a tricycle. Their fine motor skills include more refined cutting skills, they can reproduce simple shapes as they draw, they can trace, and enjoy drawing faces with a mouth, eyes, nose, and ears that are not proportional.
Physical Development Self – help skills
Daily care routines require little assistance from adults Open buckles on clothes Put on shoes (without strings) Have trouble telling front from back of clothing Most have almost full control of toilet routines For self-help skills, daily care routines require less assistance from adults, 3 year olds can open buckles on clothes, put on shoes (without strings), but have trouble telling the front from the back of clothing. And most have almost full control of toilet routines.
Able to solve simple problems Still egocentric Learn quickly Language comprehension, expressive language, and math readiness skills continue to improve 3 year olds are able to solve simple problems, are still egocentric, but learn quickly. All branches of cognitive development (being language comprehension, expressive language, and math readiness skills) continue to improve.
Language comprehension skills Can remember and follow 3-part instructions Understand pronouns such as you, they Space concepts become clearer At 3 years old, children can remember and follow 3 part instructions, they understand pronouns such as you and they, and space concepts become clearer to them.
Expressive language skills Children may use more than 900 words Start to use question words (why/when) As children play, they frequently talk out loud to themselves As far as expressing language skills, children may use more than 900 words at 3 years old. They begin using question words like why and when. Also, when playing, they frequently talk out loud to themselves.
Math Readiness Skills Understand more/less/smaller/empty Like to compare objects Counting skills begin at this age Distinguish between one and many 3 year olds understand the concept of more, less, smaller, and empty. They like to compare objects. They also begin counting and can distinguish 1 from many.
Social – Emotional Development
Social development Eager to help others, especially adults Adjust to new people more easily Begin to play with other children Will share some Begin to learn gender roles Behaviors that are expected of girls and boys 3 year olds are eager to help others, especially adults. They adjust to meeting new people easier than before. They begin to play with instead of next to other children. They aren’t as possessive as before meaning they are willing to share some. And they begin to learn gender roles meaning behaviors that are expected of girls and boys.
Social – Emotional Development
Strong, visible emotions Eager to act in ways that please others Likely to become angry when things do not go their way, but direct anger toward object instead of person Developing a self – concept: the way they see themselves Not as frightened by objects that they know, but afraid of imagined dangers (dark) Fearful of pain Affectionate 3 year olds develop strong, visible emotions. They want to act in ways that please other. They are likely to become angry when things do not go their way, but tend to get upset at the actual object instead of a person. They develop a self-concept of how they see themselves. They aren’t as frightened by objects that they know, but are afraid of pain and imagined dangers (especially in the dark). Lastly, they are very affectionate.
Teaching 3 year olds: Eager to please
Enjoy playing alone and in groups of 2 or 3 Enjoy pretending to cook, shop Become increasingly independent Need encouragement to be independent Here are some things to prepare for when teaching 3 year olds. They are eager to please people, they enjoy play alone or in groups of 2-3 (more than this number can get overwhelming). They like pretending to do things they see adults do such as cooking and shopping. They start to become more independent, but need encouragement.
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